扎实推动共同富裕
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Solidly Promote Common Prosperity

扎实推动共同富裕

A partial speech by Xi Jinping at the 10th Central Financial and Economic Committee meeting (August 2021), that provides highest authoritative insights into the four guiding principles and six tasks of the Common Prosperity concept.


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Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has profoundly reviewed its historical experience, both positive and negative, and realized that poverty is not socialism. It has broken the shackles of the traditional system, allowed some people and some regions to get rich first, and promoted the liberation and development of social productivity. 

改革开放后,我们党深刻总结正反两方面历史经验,认识到贫穷不是社会主义,打破传统体制束缚,允许一部分人、一部分地区先富起来,推动解放和发展社会生产力。

Since the 18th National Congress of the CCP, the Party Central Committee has grasped the new changes in the development stage, placed greater importance on the gradual realization of common prosperity for all people, and promoted coordinated regional development. It has taken strong measures to safeguard and improve people’s livelihood, won the battle against poverty, and completed the building of a moderately prosperous society in all aspects, and created favorable conditions for promoting common prosperity. And now, we have reached the solid promotion of common prosperity at the stage of history. 

党的十八大以来,党中央把握发展阶段新变化,把逐步实现全体人民共同富裕摆在更加重要的位置上,推动区域协调发展,采取有力措施保障和改善民生,打赢脱贫攻坚战,全面建成小康社会,为促进共同富裕创造了良好条件。现在,已经到了扎实推动共同富裕的历史阶段。

As we move toward the goal of the second century, we must adapt to the changes in the main contradictions of our society and better meet the growing needs of the people for a better life. It is imperative to promote the common prosperity for all as the focus of our effort to achieve happiness for the people and constantly consolidate the foundation of the Party’s long-term ruling. High-quality development requires high-quality workers. Only by promoting common prosperity, raising incomes of urban and rural residents, and enhancing human capital can we then raise total factor productivity and lay a solid foundation for high-quality development. At present, the problem of global income inequality is prominent. In some countries, the rich and the poor are polarized and the middle-class collapses, leading to social fracture, political polarization, and populism. The lessons are very profound. China must resolutely prevent polarization, promote common prosperity, and achieve social harmony. 

现在,我们正在向第二个百年奋斗目标迈进。适应我国社会主要矛盾的变化,更好满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要,必须把促进全体人民共同富裕作为为人民谋幸福的着力点,不断夯实党长期执政基础。高质量发展需要高素质劳动者,只有促进共同富裕,提高城乡居民收入,提升人力资本,才能提高全要素生产率,夯实高质量发展的动力基础。当前,全球收入不平等问题突出,一些国家贫富分化,中产阶层塌陷,导致社会撕裂、政治极化、民粹主义泛滥,教训十分深刻!我国必须坚决防止两极分化,促进共同富裕,实现社会和谐安定。

At the same time, it is important to recognize that the problem of unbalanced and inadequate development in China remains prominent, and there is a large disparity in development and income distribution between urban and rural areas. The new wave of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation has given a strong boost to economic growth and has a profound impact on employment and income distribution, including some negative impacts that need to be addressed effectively. 

同时,必须清醒认识到,我国发展不平衡不充分问题仍然突出,城乡区域发展和收入分配差距较大。新一轮科技革命和产业变革有力推动了经济发展,也对就业和收入分配带来深刻影响,包括一些负面影响,需要有效应对和解决。

Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism and an important feature of Chinese-style modernization. The common prosperity that we spoke of is the wealth of all people, both in material and spiritual life, rather than the prosperity of a few nor uniform egalitarianism. 

共同富裕是社会主义的本质要求,是中国式现代化的重要特征。我们说的共同富裕是全体人民共同富裕,是人民群众物质生活和精神生活都富裕,不是少数人的富裕,也不是整齐划一的平均主义。

We should study the objectives of different stages and promote common prosperity in phase: By the end of the 14th Five-Year Plan, solid steps should have been taken to achieve common prosperity for all people, and the gap between incomes and actual consumption levels of residents should have gradually narrowed. By 2035, substantial progress toward common prosperity for all will be more evident, and basic public services will be equalized. By the middle of this century, the common prosperity of all people will be achieved, and the gap between incomes and actual consumption levels of residents will be narrowed to a reasonable range. We should promptly formulate a plan of action for promoting common prosperity and put forward scientifically feasible assessment and evaluation methods that suit China’s national indicators. 

要深入研究不同阶段的目标,分阶段促进共同富裕:到“十四五”末,全体人民共同富裕迈出坚实步伐,居民收入和实际消费水平差距逐步缩小。到2035年,全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展,基本公共服务实现均等化。到本世纪中叶,全体人民共同富裕基本实现,居民收入和实际消费水平差距缩小到合理区间。要抓紧制定促进共同富裕行动纲要,提出科学可行、符合国情的指标体系和考核评估办法。

 To promote common prosperity, we must grasp the following principles: 

促进共同富裕,要把握好以下原则。

Encourage making wealth from hard work and innovation. A happy life is achieved through hard work, and common prosperity is created through hard work and wisdom. We must adhere to safeguard and improve the livelihood of the people during the development, give priority to promoting high-quality development, create more inclusive and equitable conditions for people to improve their educational attainment and development capabilities, upgrade the human capital and professional skills of the whole society, and enhance employability and entrepreneurship, which in turn enhances their ability to become rich. We need to prevent social class solidification, open channels for upward mobility, create opportunities for more people to get wealthy that form a development environment in which everyone participates, and avoid getting “bogged down” (vicious competition or making meaningless efforts)and “lying flat” (young Chinese reject rat race and embrace being a couch potato). 

——鼓励勤劳创新致富。幸福生活都是奋斗出来的,共同富裕要靠勤劳智慧来创造。要坚持在发展中保障和改善民生,把推动高质量发展放在首位,为人民提高受教育程度、增强发展能力创造更加普惠公平的条件,提升全社会人力资本和专业技能,提高就业创业能力,增强致富本领。要防止社会阶层固化,畅通向上流动通道,给更多人创造致富机会,形成人人参与的发展环境,避免“内卷”、“躺平”。

Adhere to the basic economic system. To be based on the primary stage of socialism, adhere to the “two unwaverings.” We need to ensure that the public sector plays a dominant role and that economic entities under different forms of ownership develop side by side with the public sector and play an important role in promoting common prosperity. While we need to promote the sound development of the non-public sector and the healthy growth of non-public-sector employees, we need to allow some people to get rich first while emphasizing that those who get rich first should bring along others and help others get rich. We should emphasize to encourage entrepreneurial leaders who get rich by hard-working, legitimate operations with the courage to start new businesses. Growing rich with illegitimate means should not be advocated; illegal violations should be handled per the laws and regulations. 

——坚持基本经济制度。要立足社会主义初级阶段,坚持“两个毫不动摇”。要坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展,大力发挥公有制经济在促进共同富裕中的重要作用,同时要促进非公有制经济健康发展、非公有制经济人士健康成长。要允许一部分人先富起来,同时要强调先富带后富、帮后富,重点鼓励辛勤劳动、合法经营、敢于创业的致富带头人。靠偏门致富不能提倡,违法违规的要依法处理。

Try our utmost to do our best. It is necessary to establish a scientific public policy system and form a rational distribution pattern for all. We need to take stronger and more concrete measures to give the people a greater sense of gain. Meanwhile, we should also note that our country’s level of development is still far from the developed countries. We need to balance needs and possibilities, and safeguard and improve people’s livelihood based on economic development and financial sustainability. We should not bite off more than we can chew and make promises that we cannot keep. The government cannot cover everything, and the focus is on strengthening fundamental, inclusive, and basic living protection and efforts. Even if the level of development is higher and the financial resources are stronger in the future, we still cannot set too high goals and provide overprotection; we should resolutely prevent falling into a “welfare” trap and raising idlers. 

——尽力而为量力而行。要建立科学的公共政策体系,把蛋糕分好,形成人人享有的合理分配格局。要以更大的力度、更实的举措让人民群众有更多获得感。同时,也要看到,我国发展水平离发达国家还有很大差距。要统筹需要和可能,把保障和改善民生建立在经济发展和财力可持续的基础之上,不要好高骛远,吊高胃口,作兑现不了的承诺。政府不能什么都包,重点是加强基础性、普惠性、兜底性民生保障建设。即使将来发展水平更高、财力更雄厚了,也不能提过高的目标,搞过头的保障,坚决防止落入“福利主义”养懒汉的陷阱。

Adhere to gradual progress. Common prosperity is a long-term goal that requires going through a process that cannot be achieved overnight. It must be fully estimated for its long-term nature, difficulties, and complexities; there is no time to waste but also cannot be rushed. Some developed countries have been industrializing for centuries, but due to their social systems, the problem of common prosperity remains unresolved, and the disparity between the rich and the poor is becoming increasingly serious. We must be patient, take solid measures to handle matters one by one, and increase efficiency. We should make attention to the construction of Zhejiang Common Prosperity Demonstration Zone and encourage locals to explore effective paths in light of local conditions and experience, and push forward gradually. 

——坚持循序渐进。共同富裕是一个长远目标,需要一个过程,不可能一蹴而就,对其长期性、艰巨性、复杂性要有充分估计,办好这件事,等不得,也急不得。一些发达国家工业化搞了几百年,但由于社会制度原因,到现在共同富裕问题仍未解决,贫富悬殊问题反而越来越严重。我们要有耐心,实打实地一件事一件事办好,提高实效。要抓好浙江共同富裕示范区建设,鼓励各地因地制宜探索有效路径,总结经验,逐步推开。

The general idea is to promote common prosperity in high-quality development; properly handle the relations between efficiency and fairness; establish basic institutional arrangements for initial distribution, redistribution, and coordination of the third distributions; and that the adjustment of taxation, social security, transfer payments, and other adjustments should be increased and accuracy improved, the proportion of middle-income groups expanded, and the income of low-income groups increased. Also, high income should be rationally regulated, and illegal income should be abolished, to form an olive-shaped distribution structure with a large middle section and two small ends that promote social equity and justice, comprehensive human development, as well as enables all people to make solid progress toward the goal of common prosperity. 

总的思路是,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,在高质量发展中促进共同富裕,正确处理效率和公平的关系,构建初次分配、再分配、三次分配协调配套的基础性制度安排,加大税收、社保、转移支付等调节力度并提高精准性,扩大中等收入群体比重,增加低收入群体收入,合理调节高收入,取缔非法收入,形成中间大、两头小的橄榄型分配结构,促进社会公平正义,促进人的全面发展,使全体人民朝着共同富裕目标扎实迈进。

First, improve the balance, coherence, and inclusiveness of development. It is necessary to accelerate the improvement of the socialist market economy system and promote more balanced, coordinated, and inclusive development. It is essential to enhance the balance of regional development, implement major regional strategies as well as regional coordination and development strategies, improve the transfer and payment system, reduce the regional gap in per capita financial expenditure, and increase support to the less developed regions. It is necessary to strengthen the coordination of industry development; accelerate the reform of the monopoly industries; and promote the coordinated development of finance, real estate, and the real economy. We should support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and build up an enterprise development ecology in which large and medium-sized enterprises are interdependent and mutually improving. 

第一,提高发展的平衡性、协调性、包容性。要加快完善社会主义市场经济体制,推动发展更平衡、更协调、更包容。要增强区域发展的平衡性,实施区域重大战略和区域协调发展战略,健全转移支付制度,缩小区域人均财政支出差异,加大对欠发达地区的支持力度。要强化行业发展的协调性,加快垄断行业改革,推动金融、房地产同实体经济协调发展。要支持中小企业发展,构建大中小企业相互依存、相互促进的企业发展生态。

Second, focus on increasing the size of the middle-income group. It is important to grasp the focus and make precise strategies to promote more low-income people to enter the middle-income groups. College students are an important part of the middle-income group. It is important to improve the quality of tertiary education to enable them to use the expertise they learn and support them to adapt to the social development needs soonest possible. Skilled workers are also an important part of the middle-income group. It is necessary to strengthen the training of skilled talents, raise the wages of skilled workers, and attract more qualified talents to the skilled workforce. Small and medium-sized business owners and self-employed businesses are an important group of entrepreneurs to become wealthy. We should improve the business environment, reduce the burden of taxes and fees, and provide more market-oriented financial services to help them to have stabilized operations and continuous increase of income. Migrant workers that come to the cities are an important source of middle-income groups. We should deepen the reform of the household registration system and solve problems such as children’s education for the workers migrating from rural for their peace of mind in finding jobs in the cities. Wages of civil servants, especially grassroots frontline civil servants and grassroots workers in state-owned enterprises and public enterprises, should be properly raised. It is necessary to increase the income of urban and rural residents from housing, rural lands, and financial assets. 

第二,着力扩大中等收入群体规模。要抓住重点、精准施策,推动更多低收入人群迈入中等收入行列。高校毕业生是有望进入中等收入群体的重要方面,要提高高等教育质量,做到学有专长、学有所用,帮助他们尽快适应社会发展需要。技术工人也是中等收入群体的重要组成部分,要加大技能人才培养力度,提高技术工人工资待遇,吸引更多高素质人才加入技术工人队伍。中小企业主和个体工商户是创业致富的重要群体,要改善营商环境,减轻税费负担,提供更多市场化的金融服务,帮助他们稳定经营、持续增收。进城农民工是中等收入群体的重要来源,要深化户籍制度改革,解决好农业转移人口随迁子女教育等问题,让他们安心进城,稳定就业。要适当提高公务员特别是基层一线公务员及国有企事业单位基层职工工资待遇。要增加城乡居民住房、农村土地、金融资产等各类财产性收入。

Third, promote the equalization of basic public services. Low-income groups are the key support groups on promoting common prosperity. It is necessary to increase investment in inclusive human capital, effectively alleviate the burden of education for families with difficulties, and raise the education level of low-income children. It is necessary to improve the pension and medical security system, gradually reduce the gap between workers and residents and urban and rural areas in terms of financing and security, and gradually raise the level of basic pensions for urban and rural residents. We should improve the basic comprehensive support system, accelerate the narrowing of the gap of urban and rural areas social assistance standards, and gradually raise the minimum living security level of urban and rural areas, and support basic living standards. We need to improve the housing supply and protection system, insist on the position that housing is for living and not for speculation, for rent and purchase. We need to improve the long-term rental housing policy based on urban policies, expand the supply of affordable rental housing, and focus on solving the housing problem of new citizens. 

第三,促进基本公共服务均等化。低收入群体是促进共同富裕的重点帮扶保障人群。要加大普惠性人力资本投入,有效减轻困难家庭教育负担,提高低收入群众子女受教育水平。要完善养老和医疗保障体系,逐步缩小职工与居民、城市与农村的筹资和保障待遇差距,逐步提高城乡居民基本养老金水平。要完善兜底救助体系,加快缩小社会救助的城乡标准差异,逐步提高城乡最低生活保障水平,兜住基本生活底线。要完善住房供应和保障体系,坚持房子是用来住的、不是用来炒的定位,租购并举,因城施策,完善长租房政策,扩大保障性租赁住房供给,重点解决好新市民住房问题。

Fourth, strengthen regulation and adjustment on high incomes. While protecting legitimate income per the law, it is necessary to prevent polarization and eliminate unjust distribution. It is necessary to regulate excessive income rationally, improve the personal income tax system, and standardize the management of capital income. We need to push forward real estate tax legislation and reform actively and steadily and conduct good pilot work. We need to intensify consumption-related tax regulation and study the scope of consumption tax collection. We should strengthen the regulation and management of philanthropy, improve tax incentives, and encourage high-income groups and enterprises to give back more to society. We must clean up and standardize unreasonable income, increase the management of income distribution in monopoly industries and state-owned enterprises, rectify income distribution order, and clean up distribution chaos, such as those that increase the income of executives in the name of reform. It is necessary to resolutely curb trade power, firmly crackdown on insider trading, stock market manipulation, financial counterfeiting, tax evasion, etc. 

第四,加强对高收入的规范和调节。在依法保护合法收入的同时,要防止两极分化、消除分配不公。要合理调节过高收入,完善个人所得税制度,规范资本性所得管理。要积极稳妥推进房地产税立法和改革,做好试点工作。要加大消费环节税收调节力度,研究扩大消费税征收范围。要加强公益慈善事业规范管理,完善税收优惠政策,鼓励高收入人群和企业更多回报社会。要清理规范不合理收入,加大对垄断行业和国有企业的收入分配管理,整顿收入分配秩序,清理借改革之名变相增加高管收入等分配乱象。要坚决取缔非法收入,坚决遏制权钱交易,坚决打击内幕交易、操纵股市、财务造假、偷税漏税等获取非法收入行为。

After years of exploration, we have a complete approach to the poverty problem; however, we still need to explore and accumulate experience on how to get wealthy. We need to protect property rights and intellectual property rights and protect from getting wealthy illegitimately. We must resolutely oppose the disorderly expansion of capital, draw up negative lists for access to sensitive areas, and strengthen anti-monopoly supervision. At the same time, it is also necessary to mobilize entrepreneurial motivation to promote the healthy development of all kinds of capital norms. 

经过多年探索,我们对解决贫困问题有了完整的办法,但在如何致富问题上还要探索积累经验。要保护产权和知识产权,保护合法致富。要坚决反对资本无序扩张,对敏感领域准入划出负面清单,加强反垄断监管。同时,也要调动企业家积极性,促进各类资本规范健康发展。

Fifth, promote the common prosperity of the people’s spiritual life. There is a high degree of unity between the promotion of common prosperity and the promotion of the all-rounded development of people. It is necessary to strengthen the leadership of socialist core values; strengthen the education of patriotism, collectivism, and socialism; develop public cultural programs; improve the system of public cultural services; and continuously meet the diverse, multi-level, and multifaceted spiritual and cultural needs of the masses of the people. We should strengthen the guidance of public opinion on promoting common prosperity, clarify ambiguities, avoid over-eagerness of success and fear of difficulties, and provide a good environment for public opinion to promote common prosperity. 

第五,促进人民精神生活共同富裕。促进共同富裕与促进人的全面发展是高度统一的。要强化社会主义核心价值观引领,加强爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义教育,发展公共文化事业,完善公共文化服务体系,不断满足人民群众多样化、多层次、多方面的精神文化需求。要加强促进共同富裕舆论引导,澄清各种模糊认识,防止急于求成和畏难情绪,为促进共同富裕提供良好舆论环境。

Sixth, promote common prosperity for rural areas and peasants. The most difficult and onerous task of promoting common prosperity remains in the rural areas. We should speed up the work on common prosperity in rural areas, but it is not appropriate to propose uniform quantitative targets like poverty alleviation. We need to reinforce and develop the achievements of poverty alleviation, strength monitoring, and early intervention on the populations that are prone to return to poverty and cause poverty to ensure there is no sizeable return to poverty and new poverty. It is necessary to comprehensively promote rural revitalization, accelerate agricultural industrialization, revitalize rural assets, and increase farmers’ asset revenues for more rural residents to become prosperous through hard work. We should strengthen the construction of rural infrastructure and public service systems and improve the rural habitat environment. 

第六,促进农民农村共同富裕。促进共同富裕,最艰巨最繁重的任务仍然在农村。农村共同富裕工作要抓紧,但不宜像脱贫攻坚那样提出统一的量化指标。要巩固拓展脱贫攻坚成果,对易返贫致贫人口要加强监测、及早干预,对脱贫县要扶上马送一程,确保不发生规模性返贫和新的致贫。要全面推进乡村振兴,加快农业产业化,盘活农村资产,增加农民财产性收入,使更多农村居民勤劳致富。要加强农村基础设施和公共服务体系建设,改善农村人居环境。

I generally believe that the common prosperity of all is an overall concept, just like the construction of a moderately prosperous society. It is for the society as a whole and should not be divided into cities and rural areas or eastern, central, and western regions, where they have their indicators. This needs to be viewed from an overall perspective. If we want to achieve common prosperity for 1.4 billion people, we must be down to earth and make a long-term effort. Not everyone is going to get affluent at the same time, and it is not for all regions to reach a single level of affluence at the same time. Different people not only have various levels of affluence, but also different levels of affluence within different regions. It is impossible to go hand in hand at the same time. This is a dynamic process of moving forward; it is necessary to continue moving forward to constantly achieve results. 

我总的认为,像全面建成小康社会一样,全体人民共同富裕是一个总体概念,是对全社会而言的,不要分成城市一块、农村一块,或者东部、中部、西部地区各一块,各提各的指标,要从全局上来看。我们要实现14亿人共同富裕,必须脚踏实地、久久为功,不是所有人都同时富裕,也不是所有地区同时达到一个富裕水准,不同人群不仅实现富裕的程度有高有低,时间上也会有先有后,不同地区富裕程度还会存在一定差异,不可能齐头并进。这是一个在动态中向前发展的过程,要持续推动,不断取得成效。

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习近平 (Xi Jinping) (2022). "Solidly Promote Common Prosperity [扎实推动共同富裕]". Interpret: China, Original work published October 15, 2021, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/solidly-promote-common-prosperity/

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