制造强国和网络强国建设迈出坚实步伐: 党的十八大以来我国工业和信息化发展新成就
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Taking Solid Steps in the Construction of a Manufacturing Power and a Cyberpower: New Achievements in China’s Industry and Information Technology Development Since the 18th Party Congress

制造强国和网络强国建设迈出坚实步伐: 党的十八大以来我国工业和信息化发展新成就

One of China’s senior-most industry and technology regulators summarizes China’s progress in technological advancement since the 18th Party Congress in 2012.


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The five years since the 18th Party Congress have been fruitful for industry and information technology in China. Over the past five years, the CCP Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core has put forward a series of new discourses on vigorously revitalizing the manufacturing industry, accelerating the construction of a manufacturing power and a cyberpower based on the overall situation of state governance and administration and the great cause of national rejuvenation, with brilliant new achievements made in leading and promoting industry and information technology development. In particular, in the face of the historical intersection of a new wave of S&T revolution and industrial transformation and China’s accelerated transformation of economic development models, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have reviewed the situation and have strengthened strategic planning and forward-looking deployment. Aiming at the Two Centenary Goals, China has begun the incredible journey of building a manufacturing power and a cyberpower, bringing industry and information technology in China into a new era. The system of industrialization and informatization has thoroughly implemented the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s series of important speeches and the new concepts, new ideas, and new strategies for state governance. We have firmly implemented the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, unswervingly followed the new road of industrialization with Chinese characteristics, and led new development with new ideas, fully implementing the Made in China 2025 and Internet+ campaigns. The system accelerates industrial transformation and upgrades, improves quality and efficiency, and encourages innovative development. By accelerating the building of a manufacturing power and cyberpower, it has provided vital support for economic and social development and the steady improvement of comprehensive national strength, laying a solid foundation for realizing the Two Centenary Goals.

党的十八大以来的五年,是我国工业和信息化成果丰硕的五年。五年来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央立足治国理政全局和民族复兴大业,就大力振兴制造业、加快制造强国和网络强国建设提出一系列新论述,引领和推动工业和信息化发展取得了新的辉煌成就。特别是,面对新一轮科技革命和产业变革与我国加快转变经济发展方式形成的历史性交汇,党中央、国务院审时度势,加强战略谋划和前瞻部署,瞄准“两个一百年”奋斗目标,开启制造强国和网络强国建设伟大征程,使我国工业和信息化事业迈入了新时代。工业和信息化系统深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神和治国理政新理念新思想新战略,坚决落实党中央、国务院的决策部署,坚定不移地走中国特色新型工业化道路,以新理念引领新发展,全面实施“中国制造2025”和“互联网+”行动,加快产业转型升级、提质增效、创新发展,加快制造强国和网络强国建设,为经济社会发展、综合国力稳步提升提供了重要支撑,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标打下了坚实的基础。

I. Taking multiple measures to achieve steady growth and realize the stable and rapid development of the industrial communication industry

一、多措并举稳增长,实现工业通信业平稳较快发展

General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that industry is the foundation of a country. A stable industry leads to a stable economy, and sound industrial growth is linked to the stable operation of the national economy and social stability. Facing the sustained downward pressure on the industry, we have adhered to the general tone of seeking progress while maintaining stability. Following the requirements of industrial policies, we have paid close attention to the implementation of various policies and measures to stabilize industrial growth, make structural adjustments, and increase efficiency. We must strive to address the significant problems industrial development faces to ensure that the industrial economy operates within a reasonable range, lending strong support for the national economy to maintain a medium-high growth rate.

习近平总书记强调,工业是立国之本。工业稳则经济稳,工业稳增长关乎国民经济平稳运行和社会稳定。面对一段时间内工业下行压力,我们坚持稳中求进工作总基调,按照产业政策要准的要求,狠抓工业稳增长调结构增效益各项政策措施落实,努力解决行业发展面临的突出问题,确保工业经济运行在合理区间,有力支撑了国民经济保持中高速增长。

(1) Investment vitality effectively stimulated. Investment plays a crucial role in stabilizing industrial growth. We have promoted the establishment of the National Integrated Circuit Industry Investment Fund, the National Small and Medium Enterprise Development Fund, and the Advanced Manufacturing Industry Investment Fund, improved the investment environment, improved investment services, and have guided social funds to invest in advanced manufacturing fields, the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, and the innovative development of emerging industries. Thanks to a series of comprehensive policy measures to stabilize investment, China’s industrial fixed asset investments increased from RMB 15.46 trillion in 2012 to RMB 22.78 trillion in 2016. The share of manufacturing investment in industrial investment increased from 80.8% in 2012 to 82.4% in 2016. We have taken technological transformation as a significant starting point for stabilizing industrial investment and have encouraged, supported, and guided enterprises that have implemented several technological transformation projects with high industrial relevance, an advanced level of technology, and promising market prospects. From 2013 to 2016, the average annual growth rate of industrial-technological transformation investment was 13%, of which the average annual growth rate of manufacturing technology transformation investment was 14.3%. In 2016, technological transformation investment accounted for 40.6% of industrial investment, an increase of 7.7 percentage points over 2012, becoming the main driving force for industrial investment growth.

(一)投资活力有效激发。稳定工业增长,投资具有关键作用。我们推动成立国家集成电路产业投资基金、国家中小企业发展基金和先进制造业产业投资基金,改善投资环境和改进投资服务,引导社会资金投资先进制造领域、传统产业改造提升和新兴产业创新发展。得益于一系列稳投资的综合性政策措施,我国工业固定资产投资从2012年的15.46万亿元增长到2016年的22.78万亿元。制造业投资占工业投资的比重从2012年的80.8%提高到2016年的82.4%。我们将技术改造作为稳定工业投资的重要抓手,鼓励、支持和引导企业实施了一批产业关联度大、技术水平高、市场前景好的技术改造项目。2013年-2016年,工业技术改造投资年均增长13%,其中制造业技术改造投资年均增长14.3%。2016年技改投资占工业投资的比重为40.6%,比2012年提高7.7个百分点,成为带动工业投资增长的主要力量。

(2) Consumption potential has been continuously unleashed. We have actively responded to the adverse impact of the decline in external demand, adapted to the needs of a structural upgrade to consumption, and made efforts from both supply and demand. While steadily expanding traditional consumption, we have incubated and expanded emerging consumption hotspots such as information consumption and green consumption and have unleashed the potential of domestic demand. Benefiting from the reduction of the purchase tax on small-displacement vehicles and the promotion and application of energy-saving and new energy vehicles, vehicle consumption has continued to grow. In 2016, China’s automobile production and sales reached 28.119 million and 28.028 million, respectively, ranking first in the world in terms of production and sales. The new energy vehicle industry has developed rapidly, and its production and sales have ranked first in the world for two consecutive years. It is expected to continue to maintain its leading position this year. We have actively encouraged the State Council to issue two policies and measures to promote and upgrade information consumption and continue to expand the potential of domestic demand, enabling the vigorous development of information consumption. The supply level of information products has been continuously improved, and the production and market size of mobile phones ranks first in the world. In 2016, 1.5 billion smartphones were produced, accounting for 74.7% of all mobile phone production. New smart hardware in such fields as home living, personal wear, and medical and health care have emerged in an endless stream. Online and offline integration and business innovation are active, online medical treatment, online education, and other forms of innovation continue to grow, and new consumption in transportation, travel and accommodations, and catering and takeaway is rapidly emerging. The scale of information consumption increased from RMB 2.2 trillion in 2013 to RMB 3.9 trillion in 2016, with an average annual growth rate of 21%, indirectly driving the economic growth of more than RMB 10 trillion.

(二)消费潜力不断释放。我们积极应对外需下降带来的不利影响,适应消费结构升级的需求,从供给和需求两端发力,在稳定扩大传统消费的同时,培育壮大信息消费、绿色消费等新兴消费热点,释放内需潜力。受益于小排量汽车购置税减征以及节能与新能源汽车推广应用政策,汽车消费持续增长。2016年,中国汽车产销分别完成2811.9万辆和2802.8万辆,产销量稳居全球第一。新能源汽车产业迅猛发展,产销量连续两年位居世界第一,今年有望继续保持领先地位。积极推动国务院两次出台促进和升级信息消费、持续扩大内需潜力的政策措施,促进信息消费蓬勃发展。信息产品供给水平不断提升,手机产量和市场规模全球第一,2016年生产智能手机15亿部,占全部手机产量的74.7%。家庭居住、个人穿戴、医疗健康等新型智能硬件层出不穷。线上线下融合业务创新活跃,在线医疗、在线教育等持续扩大,交通出行、旅游住宿、餐饮外卖等领域的新型消费迅速兴起。信息消费规模由2013年的2.2万亿元增长至2016年的3.9万亿元,年均增幅达21%,间接带动经济增长10万亿元以上。

(3) Openness and cooperation are expanding day by day. We have actively implemented the strategy of opening up to the outside world, coordinated the accelerated implementation of central Belt and Road projects, built an international production capacity and equipment manufacturing cooperation platform, supported the construction of overseas industrial cooperation parks, accelerated the interconnection of information infrastructure with neighboring countries, and promoted the development of open cooperation in the industrial communication industry at a more comprehensive, deeper, and higher level. In 2016, China’s industrial exports reached USD 1.99 trillion, accounting for one-seventh of the world’s total, making it the largest exporter of industrial products. Technology-intensive mechanical and electrical products have surpassed labor-intensive textile products to become the main export force. In 2016, exports of mechanical and electrical products and high-tech products accounted for 57.7% and 28.8% of exports of goods, respectively. The pace of “going global” in the manufacturing industry has accelerated. In 2016, China’s overseas non-financial direct investment was USD 170.11 billion, of which foreign manufacturing investment was USD 31.06 billion, accounting for 18.3% of total foreign investment from 9.6% in 2013. The brand reputation and international influence of Made in China have been significantly improved.

(三)开放合作日益扩大。我们积极贯彻对外开放战略,协调“一带一路”重大项目加快落地,搭建国际产能和装备制造合作平台,支持境外产业合作园区建设,加快推进与周边国家信息基础设施互联互通,推动工业通信业在更广领域、更深层次和更高水平上开放合作。2016年我国工业品出口达到1.99万亿美元,占全球的1/7,是最大的工业品出口国。技术密集型的机电产品超越劳动密集型的轻纺工业品成为出口主力。2016年机电产品和高技术产品出口占货物出口的比重分别达到57.7%和28.8%。制造业“走出去”步伐加快。2016年我国在境外非金融类直接投资1701.1亿美元,其中制造业对外投资310.6亿美元,占对外投资总额的比重从2013年的9.6%上升到18.3%。“中国制造”的品牌美誉度和国际影响力显著提升。

Through active efforts in all aspects, China’s industrial communication industry has overcome many difficulties and withstood downward pressure, showing a development trend of slowing and stabilizing, steady progress, and continuous improvement. From 2013 to 2016, China’s total industrial added value increased by an average of 6.7% annually, ranking among the world’s top major economies. The total annual industrial added value increased from RMB 20 trillion in 2012 to RMB 24.8 trillion in 2016, ranking firmly as the world’s largest manufacturing country. In 2016, the revenue of China’s information and communication service industry exceeded RMB 2.4 trillion, an increase of 80% compared with 2012. The average annual compound growth rate of internet industry revenue exceeded 40%, becoming the second-largest force in the global internet, with obvious advantages in scale and applications. The overall level of corporate efficiency is good, and the output per unit of labor has increased significantly. From 2013 to 2016, the primary business income of industrial enterprises above the designated size increased by 3.8% annually, and total profit increased by 3.1% annually. Several internationally competitive enterprise groups have been formed in rail transit equipment, communication equipment, and electric power equipment. 10 enterprises joined the ranks of the top 30 global internet companies by market value. The vitality of small, medium, and micro enterprises is constantly overflowing, and the development pattern of large and medium-sized enterprises is accelerated.

通过各方面积极努力,我国工业通信业克服重重困难,顶住下行压力,呈现缓中趋稳、稳中有进、稳中向好的发展态势。2013年-2016年,我国全部工业增加值年均增长6.7%,在世界主要经济体中名列前茅。全年全部工业增加值从2012年的20万亿元增长到2016年的24.8万亿元,稳居世界第一制造大国。2016年,我国信息通信服务业收入规模超过2.4万亿元,较2012年增长80%,其中互联网行业收入年均复合增长率超过40%,成为全球互联网第二大力量,规模和应用优势明显。企业效益水平整体良好,单位劳动产出明显提高。2013年-2016年,全国规模以上工业企业主营业务收入年均增长3.8%,利润总额年均增长3.1%。轨道交通装备、通信装备、电力装备等领域形成了一批具有国际竞争力的企业群体。10家企业进入全球互联网企业市值前30名。中小微企业活力不断迸发,大中小企业融通发展格局加速形成。

II. The innovation-driven development strategy has been implemented, and the industry has accelerated its progress towards the mid-to-high-end

二、贯彻落实创新驱动发展战略,产业加速向中高端迈进

General Secretary Xi Jinping has noted that innovation is the primary driving force for development. We have placed innovation at the core of the overall development of the manufacturing industry, have deeply implemented Made in China 2025, highlighting key points, strengthening foundations, and making up for shortcomings, and have improved the national manufacturing innovation system. We have enhanced basic industrial capabilities and accelerated key core technologies breakthroughs. We have promoted the significant enhancement of industrial innovation capabilities and have provided a strong impetus for the improved quality, enhanced efficiency, and overall upgrading of the industrial communications industry.

习近平总书记指出,创新是引领发展的第一动力。我们把创新摆在制造业发展全局的核心位置,深入实施“中国制造2025”,突出抓重点、强基础、补短板,完善国家制造业创新体系,提升工业基础能力,加快突破关键核心技术,推动产业创新能力显著增强,为工业通信业提质增效升级提供强劲动力。

(1) The pace of construction of manufacturing innovation centers has been accelerated. As the first of the five major projects proposed by Made in China 2025, the construction of a manufacturing innovation center is a fundamental solution to make up for the broken links in the innovation chain, especially to solve the “valley of death” problem between laboratory products and industrialization. Under the leadership of the National Leading Group for Building a Manufacturing Power, we have issued the Implementation Guidelines for the Construction of Manufacturing Innovation Centers (2016-2020) and published the Guidelines on Improving the Manufacturing Innovation System and Promoting the Construction of Manufacturing Innovation Centers. Guided by industrial applications, efforts have been made to build and improve the national manufacturing innovation network with the national manufacturing innovation center as the core and the provincial manufacturing innovation center as an essential supplement. In June 2016, the establishment of the National Power Battery Innovation Center was approved. In December of the same year, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Center was approved. The construction of manufacturing innovation centers has entered the implementation stage from top-level design. Together with relevant authorities, we have demonstrated the overall layout of the construction of the national manufacturing innovation center and have identified 22 critical areas for construction in the near future. In July 2017, we announced the conditions for upgrading the provincial manufacturing innovation center to the national manufacturing innovation center. So far, a set of work measures for the layout, incubation, selection, operation, and sustainable development of innovation centers have been initially formed, which provides an essential basis for the steady, orderly, and high-standard overall development of the construction of national and provincial manufacturing innovation centers. At present, there are 35 provincial-level manufacturing innovation centers under incubation and construction in various regions.

(一)制造业创新中心建设步伐不断加快。建设制造业创新中心作为“中国制造2025”提出的五大工程之首,是弥补创新链条的断裂环节,特别是解决从实验室产品到产业化之间的“死亡之谷”问题的治本之策。在国家制造强国建设领导小组领导下,我们出台《制造业创新中心建设工程实施指南(2016年-2020年)》,印发《关于完善制造业创新体系 推进制造业创新中心建设的指导意见》,以产业化应用为导向,着力构建完善以国家制造业创新中心为核心节点、省级制造业创新中心为重要补充的国家制造业创新网络。2016年6月,批复成立国家动力电池创新中心,同年12月批复筹建国家增材制造创新中心,制造业创新中心建设由顶层设计进入实施阶段。我们会同有关部门对国家制造业创新中心建设总体布局进行论证,确定了近期重点建设的22个领域,2017年7月公布了省级制造业创新中心升级为国家制造业创新中心的条件。至此,初步形成了创新中心布局、培育、遴选、运行、可持续发展等一整套工作措施,为稳步有序、高标准统筹推进国家和省级制造业创新中心建设工作提供了重要依据。目前,各地正在培育建设的省级制造业创新中心已有35家。

(2) Basic industrial capabilities have continued to be consolidated. The industrial base directly determines the performance and quality of products and is an essential foundation and supporting condition for building a manufacturing power. We have implemented solid industrial base projects and have used key projects to break through the bottlenecks of engineering and industrialization of essential core components, vital basic materials, and advanced basic processes. We have built essential industrial technology services and accelerated the filling of the outstanding shortcomings that restrict the manufacturing industry’s innovation, development, and overall improvement. Since 2013, we have supported a total of 314 solid industrial base demonstration projects, achieved more than 30 breakthrough results, established 19 public service platforms for industrial technology foundations, and have strongly supported the overall upgrading of critical industries. To promote the successful introduction of the products of solid industrial base demonstration projects to the market, we have formulated an implementation plan for the “one-stop” application of critical products and processes of solid industrial base projects, promoting nearly 50 critical applications, covering power battery diaphragm materials, micro-motor system sensors, new urban rail transit bearings, engine EFI systems, graphene, and other essential products. We have broken down foreign monopolies and addressed the “throttle” placed on many essential core components, critical basic materials, and advanced basic technology.

(二)工业基础能力不断夯实。工业基础直接决定着产品的性能和质量,是制造强国建设的重要基础和支撑条件。我们实施工业强基工程,通过重点项目带动,突破核心基础零部件(元器件)、关键基础材料、先进基础工艺的工程化和产业化瓶颈问题,构建产业技术基础服务,加快补齐制约制造业创新发展和质量提升的突出短板。2013年以来,累计支持314个工业强基示范项目,已经取得30多项突破性成果,确立了19家产业技术基础公共服务平台,有力支撑了重点行业整体升级。为推动工业强基示范项目产品成功走向市场,我们制定工业强基工程重点产品和工艺“一条龙”应用计划实施方案,推进重点应用近50项,涵盖动力电池隔膜材料、微电机系统传感器、新型城市轨道交通轴承、发动机电喷系统、石墨烯等基础产品,打破了国外垄断,解决了一批核心基础零部件、关键基础材料和先进基础工艺的“卡脖子”问题。

(3) Important breakthroughs have been made in the innovation and development of high-end equipment. As a high-end field of manufacturing, high-end equipment reflects the core competitiveness of a country’s manufacturing industry. Regarding equipment upgrades as the focus of Made in China 2025, we have launched high-end equipment innovation projects, accelerated the implementation of high-end CNC machine tools, “aircraft towing” technology, large aircraft, and other major national S&T projects, and have actively promoted the industrialization of major equipment, with frequent reports of major breakthroughs at the major national heavy equipment technology level. The world’s first high-resolution earth observation remote sensing satellite in geosynchronous orbit, Gaofen-4, was launched into orbit and put into use. The Beidou satellite navigation system was fully completed and put into operation. The first quantum satellite was successfully launched, the C919 large passenger plane was successfully tested twice, and the ARJ21 regional passenger plane was put into commercial operation. The manned submersible (Jialong) and submarine metal and mineral exploration and development equipment (Bluewhale 1) have entered the world’s first echelon, the independently-built “Haidou” unmanned submersible has ranked China third after Japan and the United States in having the ability to develop 10,000-meter-level unmanned submersibles, and the Yangtze River Three Gorges ship lift broke the world record. Multi-axis precision heavy-duty machine tools, 400-horsepower continuously variable tractors, and other products are among the world’s advanced ranks. The high-speed EMU with independent intellectual property rights has become a postcard to the world for the development of China’s manufacturing industry. Technologies such as speech recognition and image recognition have reached the internationally advanced level. Active progress has been made in technologies such as robot body optimization design and performance evaluation, high-speed and high-precision control, and the output of industrial robots accounts for about a quarter of the world’s total.

(三)高端装备创新发展取得重要突破。高端装备作为制造业的高端领域,体现了一国制造业的核心竞争能力。我们把装备升级作为“中国制造2025”的重点,启动高端装备创新工程,加快实施高档数控机床、“两机”、大飞机等国家科技重大专项,积极推动重大装备产业化,大国重器技术水平重大突破捷报频传。世界首颗地球同步轨道高分辨率对地观测遥感卫星“高分四号”发射入轨交付使用,北斗卫星导航区域系统全面建成投入运营,神舟十一号飞船与天宫二号成功交会对接,全球首颗量子卫星发射成功,C919大型客机两次试飞均获成功,ARJ21支线客机投入商业运营。载人深潜器(蛟龙号)、海底金属矿产勘探开发装备(蓝鲸1号)等进入世界第一梯队,自主研制的“海斗”号无人潜水器使我国成为继日、美之后第三个拥有研制万米级无人潜水器能力的国家,长江三峡升船机刷新世界纪录。多轴精密重型机床、400马力无级变速拖拉机等产品跻身世界先进行列。拥有自主知识产权的高速动车机组,成为我国制造业发展的世界名片。语音识别、图像识别等技术已达国际先进水平,机器人本体优化设计及性能评估、高速高精度控制等技术取得积极进展,工业机器人产量约占全球的1/4。

(4) The development of military-civilian integration has advanced deeply. Implementing the military-civilian integration development strategy is a major deployment made by the CCP Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core based on the development requirements of the times and from the overall national security and development strategy. We have given full play to the role of the inter-ministerial coordination group for military-civilian integration and military-civilian weaponry and equipment research and production. We have pushed relevant military and local authorities to introduce a series of policies and measures to promote the deep integration of military and civilian development in investment, taxation, and market access for military products. Three military-civilian integration high-tech achievement exhibitions were jointly held, and several military-civilian integration high-tech projects achieved fruitful results. We have continued to expand the opening up of the military industry, easing market access. Among the units that have obtained licensing for scientific research and production of weapons and equipment, civilian units have accounted for two-thirds of the total number of military scientific research and production license units, with the number of private enterprises increased from less than 500 in 2012 to 1,169, an increase of more than 130%. The functions of the national military-civilian integration public service platform have been continuously optimized. The regional role for demonstration and leadership of the national new industrialization industry demonstration base (military-civilian integration) has been further strengthened. The “military-to-civilian” and “civilian-to-military” catalogs have played an increasingly important role in promoting the bilateral transformation, application, and industrialization of military-civilian technological achievements, and an in-depth development pattern of all-factor, multi-field, and high-efficiency military-civilian integration is taking shape.

(四)军民融合发展向纵深推进。实施军民融合发展战略,是以习近平同志为核心的党中央立足时代发展要求,从国家安全和发展战略全局出发作出的重大部署。我们充分发挥军民结合、寓军于民武器装备科研生产部际协调小组作用,推动军地相关部门在投资、税收、军品市场准入等方面出台一系列推进军民深度融合发展的政策措施。联合举办三届军民融合高技术成果展览会,一批军民融合高技术项目结出了丰硕成果。持续扩大军工开放,放宽市场准入,目前已获得武器装备科研生产许可证的单位中,民口单位已占军品科研生产许可证单位总数的三分之二,民营企业数量由2012年不足500家增长到1169家,增长幅度超过130%。国家军民融合公共服务平台功能不断优化,国家新型工业化产业示范基地(军民结合)的区域示范和带动作用进一步增强,“军转民”“民参军”目录推动军民技术成果双向转化应用和产业化发展的作用日益显现,全要素、多领域、高效益的军民融合深度发展格局正在形成。

III. Supply-side structural reform has deepened with positive results in structural adjustment

三、深化供给侧结构性改革,结构调整取得积极成效

General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that promoting supply-side structural reform is a strategic idea that must be established in China’s macroeconomic management under the new normal of economic development. Industry is the “pillar a country stands upon” for developing and upgrading and the main battlefield for promoting supply-side structural reforms. We have focused on reducing overcapacity, reducing costs, and making up for shortcomings in the industrial sector, focusing on reducing ineffective and low-end supply, expanding effective and high-end supply, and promoting the continuous improvement of the quality and efficiency of the supply system.

习近平总书记强调,推进供给侧结构性改革是经济发展新常态下我国宏观经济管理必须确立的战略思路,是一场关系全局、关系长远的攻坚战。工业是实现发展升级的“国之重器”,是推进供给侧结构性改革的主战场。我们突出抓好工业领域去产能、降成本、补短板等工作,着力减少无效和低端供给,扩大有效和高端供给,推动供给体系质量和效率不断提升。

(1) The task of overcapacity reduction has been over-completed. Great efforts have been made in resolutely fighting the brutal battle to cut overcapacity. Together with the formulation of eight supporting policies such as reward and subsidy funds, employee placement, environmental protection, and finance, etc., and organize with relevant departments to carry out three special projects of eliminating backward and illegal construction projects and joint law enforcement. Actions to promote the establishment of an effective working mechanism and a relatively complete and vertically-linked policy system. From 2013 to 2015, a total of 48 million tons of backward iron-making capacity, 57 million tons of steelmaking capacity, 1.1 million tons of electrolytic aluminum, 240 million tons of cement (clinker and grinding capacity), and 80 million weight boxes of flat glass were eliminated nationwide. In 2016, the steel industry reduced production capacity by more than 65 million tons, exceeding the annual target. At the end of June 2017, strip steel was banned entirely, and the scheduled target task of resolving steel production capacity for the whole year was completed ahead of schedule from January to July. We have tightly seized upon the disposal of “zombie enterprises” and have promoted the introduction of guiding documents for the industrial restructuring and disposal of zombie enterprises. Baosteel and Wuhan Iron and Steel jointly established Baowu Iron and Steel Group. With the further progress of eliminating backward production capacity and resolving excess production capacity, steel, and other industries’ overall production and operation conditions have improved.

(一)去产能任务超额完成。下大力气坚决打好去产能这场硬仗,配合制定奖补资金、职工安置、环保、金融等方面8个配套政策,会同相关部门组织开展淘汰落后、违法违规建设项目清理和联合执法三个专项行动,推动建立上下联动、行之有效的工作机制和较为完善的政策体系。2013年-2015年,全国共计淘汰落后炼铁产能4800万吨、炼钢5700万吨、电解铝110万吨、水泥(熟料和粉磨能力)2.4亿吨、平板玻璃8000万重量箱。2016年全年钢铁行业去产能超过6500万吨,超额完成年度目标任务。2017年6月底,全面取缔了“地条钢”,1-7月提前完成全年化解钢铁产能预定目标任务,电解铝、水泥、平板玻璃等行业过剩产能化解工作稳步推进。紧紧抓住“僵尸企业”处置这个牛鼻子,推动出台产业重组和处置僵尸企业的指导性文件。宝钢、武钢联合成立宝武钢铁集团。随着淘汰落后和化解过剩产能深入推进,钢铁等行业生产经营状况整体好转。

(2) The cost burden of enterprises has been further reduced. We have continued to deepen the reform to “delegate power, streamline administration and optimize government services,” canceling 30 administrative examination and approval items, which were decentralized and adjusted, accounting for 53.6% of the initial administrative examination and approval items. All non-administrative examination and approval items have been canceled, the supervision work of “inspections by randomly selected inspectors of randomly selected entities and the public release of inspection results” has been carried out, and the online “one window” processing of administrative licensing has been promoted. We have given full play to the role of the inter-ministerial coordination joint meeting mechanism of the State Council to reduce the burden on enterprises, have encouraged all regions and authorities to publish lists of enterprise-related administrative fees and government funds, and have established a normalized publicity system. We have carried out a special campaign to clean up and standardize enterprise-related charges, reduced the burden on enterprises by more than RMB 100 billion, and canceled more than 150 enterprise-related deposit projects. We have promoted the issuance of guidelines on financial support for the construction of a manufacturing power, have steadily promoted industry-fusion cooperation, carried out pilot projects in cities (districts) for industry-fusion collaboration, cleared channels for finance to enter real enterprises, and reduced corporate financing costs. We have continued to promote the construction of the financing guarantee system, have carried out special campaigns for small and micro-enterprise accounts receivable financing, and have encouraged financial institutions and core supply chain enterprises to provide accounts receivable financing to small and micro-enterprise suppliers. In 2016, the cost per RMB 100 of primary business income of industrial enterprises above the designated size was RMB 85.52, down RMB 0.10 from the previous year. From January to August of this year, the decline in costs further increased, falling by RMB 0.12 year-on-year.

(二)企业成本负担进一步降低。我们持续深化“放管服”改革,先后取消下放调整行政审批事项30项,占原有行政审批事项的53.6%,全部取消了非行政审批事项,开展“双随机一公开”监管工作,推进行政许可网上“一个窗口”办理。充分发挥国务院减轻企业负担部际协调联席会议机制作用,推动各地区、各部门公布涉企行政事业性收费、政府性基金目录清单,建立常态化公示制度。开展涉企收费清理规范专项行动,为企业减负超过1000亿元,取消涉企保证金项目150项以上。推动出台关于金融支持制造强国建设的指导意见,稳妥推进产融合作,开展产融合作城市(区)试点,疏通金融进入实体企业的渠道,降低企业融资成本。继续推进融资担保体系建设,开展小微企业应收账款融资专项行动,推动金融机构和供应链核心企业对小微企业供应商提供应收账款融资。2016年,规模以上工业企业每百元主营业务收入中的成本为85.52元,比上年下降0.1元。今年1-8月,成本降幅进一步加大,同比又下降了0.12元。

(3) Quality brands have steadily improved. We have comprehensively enhanced the quality of products and services as the main direction of supply-side structural reform. We have carried out a special industrial quality brand-building campaign for six consecutive years. We have formed several influential and iconic campaigns such as quality benchmarking, quality control and technical evaluation laboratory construction, corporate brand incubation, and industrial cluster regional brand building. For the large-scale and wide-ranging daily consumer goods sector, the special campaign for “increasing varieties, improving quality, and creating brands” was implemented in-depth, and the supply capacity, quality of consumer goods, and brand competitiveness mid-to-high-end consumer goods were further improved. In terms of increasing varieties, the supply capacity of high-end products such as rice cookers, range hoods, smart toilets, and smart TVs has been continuously improved, and the trend of a return from overseas consumption is significant. Breakthroughs have been achieved in hybrid-ink pen technology with exports to overseas markets. The production and supply of 17 small varieties of drugs were promoted and guaranteed, and three innovative first-class medicines and 45 innovative medical devices were approved for marketing. In terms of quality improvement, in 2016, the overall random inspection pass rate of ten categories of key consumer goods in China was 90.3%, a year-on-year increase of 5.2 percentage points. More than 5,000 kinds of products have achieved “same line, same standard and same quality” for domestic and foreign sales. In terms of brand creation, nearly 10,000 companies across the country have carried out brand incubation pilot projects, and 99 consumer goods companies have been selected into the top 500 Asian brands.

(三)质量品牌稳步提升。全面提高产品和服务质量是供给侧结构性改革的主攻方向。我们连续6年开展工业质量品牌建设专项行动,形成了质量标杆、质量控制和技术评价实验室建设、企业品牌培育、产业集群区域品牌建设等一批有影响力的标志性活动。针对量大面广的日用消费品,深入实施“增品种、提品质、创品牌”专项行动,推动中高端消费品供给能力、消费品品质、品牌竞争力进一步提升。在增品种方面,电饭煲、吸油烟机、智能坐便器、智能电视等高端产品供给能力不断提升,境外消费回流趋势明显。中水性、中油圆珠笔墨水实现突破,并开始出口海外市场。推动保障了17个小品种药品的生产供应,3个一类创新药和45件创新医药器械获批上市。在提品质方面,2016年,我国十类重点消费品总体抽查合格率为90.3%,同比提升5.2个百分点,5000余种产品实现内外销“同线同标同质”。在创品牌方面,全国近万家企业开展品牌培育试点,99家消费品企业入选亚洲品牌500强;推动从2017年开始设立5月10日“中国品牌日”。

(4) The pace of industrial greening has accelerated. Green manufacturing is an essential trend in the development of the manufacturing industry. It is also the only way to solve the resource and environmental constraints faced in China’s industrialization. We have successively issued and implemented the Industrial Green Development Plan (2016-2020) and Green Manufacturing Engineering Implementation Guidelines (2016-2020) to accelerate the formation of green production methods and lifestyles. On the one hand, we have further promoted the development of green manufacturing. We have organized special projects for green manufacturing projects, have utilized financial funds to support 225 major green manufacturing projects, have built a green manufacturing system centered on green standards, green factories, green products, green parks, and green supply chains, and have driven the continuous improvement of resource and energy utilization efficiency in critical industries. On the other hand, we have made full use of national and local policies and measures such as energy conservation and emission reduction, technological transformation, and green credit to accelerate the green transformation of traditional industries. We have published the Administrative Measures for Industrial Energy Conservation and have carried out major national industrial energy conservation monitoring campaigns. We have formulated and implemented the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Promotion of Industrial Cleaner Production to guide the industry to implement cleaner production technology transformation. We have issued guidelines for strengthening the green development of industries in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and have formulated plans for cleaning and transforming key sectors to prevent and control air and water pollution. We have vigorously promoted the comprehensive utilization of industrial solid waste and renewable resources and have promoted the implementation of 44 demonstration projects for the coordinated development of industries in the comprehensive utilization of industrial resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas. From 2012 to 2016, the energy consumption per unit of industrial added value of enterprises above the designated size decreased by about 29.5%, and the cumulative decrease of water consumption per RMB 10,000 of industrial added value decreased by about 26.6%. From January to August of this year, the energy consumption per unit of added value of industrial enterprises above the designated size across the country dropped by 3.19% year-on-year.

(四)工业绿色转型步伐加快。绿色制造是制造业发展的重要趋势,也是解决我国工业化过程中资源环境约束的必由之路。我们先后发布实施《工业绿色发展规划(2016年-2020年)》和《绿色制造工程实施指南(2016年-2020年)》,加快推动形成绿色生产方式和生活方式。一方面,深入推进绿色制造发展。组织绿色制造工程专项,利用财政资金支持225个重大绿色制造项目,打造以绿色标准、绿色工厂、绿色产品、绿色园区和绿色供应链为核心的绿色制造体系,带动重点行业资源能源利用效率不断提高。另一方面,充分利用国家和地方节能减排、技术改造、绿色信贷等政策措施,加快对传统产业绿色化改造。发布《工业节能管理办法》,开展国家重大工业节能监察行动。制定实施《工业清洁生产推行“十二五”规划》,引导行业实施清洁生产技术改造。发布加强长江经济带工业绿色发展的指导意见,制定大气和水污染防治重点行业清洁化改造方案。大力推进工业固体废物和再生资源综合利用,推动京津冀及周边地区实施44个工业资源综合利用产业协同发展示范项目。2012年-2016年,全国规模以上企业单位工业增加值能耗累计下降约29.5%,万元工业增加值用水量累计下降约26.6%。今年1-8月,全国规模以上工业企业单位增加值能耗又同比下降了3.19%。

(5) Coordinated regional development has been further strengthened. We have collaboratively promoted the development of the Three Major Strategies and Four Major Sectors, have given full play to the enthusiasm of both the central and local governments, and have promoted the further improvement of the level of coordinated regional development. We have published the industrial transfer guidance catalog, have supported the construction of industrial transfer collaboration demonstration parks, and have guided the orderly transfer of industries to the central and western regions. We have worked with relevant authorities and the three provinces and cities of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei to formulate the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Coordinated Development Industrial Upgrade and Transfer Plan and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Industrial Transfer Guide to clarify the industrial development orientation of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, support the planning and construction of the Xiong’an New Area in Hebei, and relieve Beijing of non-capital functions. We have formulated a plan for the transformation and upgrading of innovation-driven industries in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, have organized the compilation of the Guidelines for Industrial Transfer in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the Market Access Black List for Industrial Development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt to promote the orderly transfer of industries along the river and achieve differentiated development. We have continued to promote the construction of new industrialized industry demonstration bases. The 333 national-level demonstration bases that have been awarded have achieved industrial added value and their profits account for one-third of the national industry total above the designated size. We have intensified the promotion of targeted poverty alleviation, have supported the development of key areas such as old revolutionary base areas, Xinjiang, and Tibet, and have fundamentally formed a new pattern of industrial development based on local conditions and regional linkages.

(五)区域协调发展进一步增强。我们统筹推进“三大战略”和“四大板块”发展,充分发挥中央和地方两方面积极性,推动区域协调发展水平进一步提升。发布产业转移指导目录,支持建设产业转移合作示范园区,引导产业向中西部地区有序转移。会同有关部门和京津冀三省市制定《京津冀协同发展产业升级转移规划》和《京津冀产业转移指南》,明确京津冀地区产业发展定位,支持河北雄安新区规划建设,推动北京非首都功能疏解。制定长江经济带创新驱动产业转型升级方案,组织编制《长江经济带产业转移指南》和《长江经济带产业发展市场准入负面清单》,推动产业沿江有序转移,实现差异化发展。持续推进新型工业化产业示范基地建设,已授牌的333家国家级示范基地实现工业增加值、利润占全国规模以上工业的1/3。加大精准扶贫精准脱贫推进力度,支持革命老区、新疆、西藏等重点地区发展,因地制宜、区域联动的产业发展新格局基本形成。

IV. We have promoted the in-depth integration and development of informatization and industrialization, spurring the emergence of a large number of new business forms and models

四、推进两化深度融合发展,新业态新模式大量涌现

General Secretary Xi Jinping has emphasized that as the world economy accelerates its transformation to economic activity themed around the network information technology industry, we must excel the deep integration of informatization and industrialization. Focusing on the main line of promoting the in-depth integration and development of new-generation information technology and manufacturing technology, we have formulated and organized a series of plans and special action plans to continuously improve the level of digitization, networkization, and intelligentization in the manufacturing industry.

习近平总书记强调,世界经济加速向以网络信息技术产业为重要内容的经济活动转变,要做好信息化与工业化深度融合这篇大文章。我们紧紧围绕推动新一代信息技术与制造技术深度融合发展这一主线,制定并组织实施一系列规划及专项行动计划,推动制造业数字化、网络化、智能化水平不断提升。

(1) The development of intelligent manufacturing has achieved positive results. We have carefully studied and judged the new trend of industrial transformation, have taken intelligent manufacturing as the main direction of the integration of industrialization and industrialization, and have jointly released the Guidelines for the Implementation of Intelligent Manufacturing Engineering, Guidelines for the Construction of the National Intelligent Manufacturing Standard System (2015 Edition), and Intelligent Manufacturing Development Plan (2016-2020), forming a work pattern that takes intelligent manufacturing engineering, pilot demonstration, and standard system construction as the starting point where all authorities and localities work with one another to jointly implement production, education, research, and applications and jointly promote all aspects. Since 2015, 207 pilot demonstration projects in intelligent manufacturing have been selected, a number of digital workshops and intelligent factories have been initially built, and a number of new models of intelligent manufacturing that are relatively mature, replicable, and popular have been explored and formed. We researched and formulated a number of key standards such as the digital factory reference model, have preliminarily established the intelligent manufacturing standard system framework, and have actively promoted international collaboration and mutual recognition of standard system frameworks, standard roadmaps, and standard formulations. We have released the industrial internet system architecture and have promoted the construction of a number of industrial internet platforms for aerospace, home appliances, machinery and heavy industry, and other sub-sectors. After continuous efforts, the pace of intelligent transformation of production equipment in China’s manufacturing enterprises has accelerated, and the comprehensive integration level has continued to improve. Smart robots, additive manufacturing, wearable smart products, mobile smart terminals and other industries are developing rapidly. The promotion of mass customization in clothing, furniture, and other industries has accelerated. Collaborative R&D and manufacturing are increasingly emerging in high-end manufacturing fields such as automobiles, aviation, and aerospace. In 2016, the numerical control rate of key processes of industrial enterprises reached 45.4%, an increase of 6.3 percentage points (comparable caliber) compared with 2013, and the networking rate of digital production equipment reached 38.2%. The competitive advantages of intelligently transformed manufacturing enterprises in supply chain collaboration, lean management, precise manufacturing, and rapid market response are constantly expanding.

(一)智能制造发展取得积极成效。我们认真研判产业变革新趋势,将智能制造作为两化融合的主攻方向,联合相关部门发布《智能制造工程实施指南》《国家智能制造标准体系建设指南(2015年版)》和《智能制造发展规划(2016年-2020年)》,形成了以智能制造工程、试点示范和标准体系建设为抓手,各部门、各地方协同配合,产学研用联合实施,各方面共同推进的工作格局。自2015年以来,遴选了智能制造207个试点示范项目,初步建成一批数字化车间和智能工厂,探索形成了一批比较成熟、可复制、可推广的智能制造新模式。研究制定了数字化工厂参考模型等一批关键标准,初步建立了智能制造标准体系架构,积极推进标准体系架构、标准路线图和标准制定等国际合作和互认。发布工业互联网体系架构,推动建设了一批面向航天、家电、机械重工等细分领域的工业互联网平台。经过持续努力,我国制造企业生产设备智能化改造步伐加快,综合集成水平持续提高,智能机器人、增材制造、可穿戴智能产品、移动智能终端等产业快速发展,大规模个性化定制在服装、家具等行业加快推广,协同研发制造在汽车、航空、航天等高端制造领域日益兴起。2016年工业企业关键工序数控化率达到45.4%,比2013年提高6.3个百分点(可比口径),数字化生产设备联网率达到38.2%。智能化改造后的制造企业在供应链协同、精益管理、精准制造、市场快速响应等方面的竞争优势不断扩大。

(2) The construction of the “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” platform has accelerated. Building a “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” platform that gathers the wisdom and strength of the masses is an important force for promoting mass entrepreneurship and innovation. We have promoted the introduction of guidelines for deepening the integration and development of manufacturing and the internet, have accelerated the construction of an internet-based “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” platform for large-scale manufacturing enterprises and a third-party “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” service platform for small and medium-sized enterprises, and have worked hard to form the effects of superposition, aggregation, and multiplication from the deep integration and development of the manufacturing industry and the internet. The penetration rate of “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” in large enterprises has continued to increase, and the penetration rate of internet “mass entrepreneurship and innovation” platforms in key manufacturing industries has exceeded 60%, providing an important carrier for large and medium-sized enterprises to evolve from surface-level collaboration to deep integration. We have encouraged localities to use idle factories and land, as well as existing industrial parks, to establish small business start-up bases and to develop innovation and entrepreneurship carriers such as virtual incubators and makerspaces. From 2015 to 2017, three batches of 297 national small and micro enterprise entrepreneurship and innovation demonstration bases were announced. We have strengthened dynamic management and demonstration guidance, have supported about 500 national public service demonstration platforms for small and medium-sized enterprises, and have provided small and medium-sized enterprises with entrepreneurship and innovation services that can be discovered, utilized, and guaranteed.

(二)“双创”平台建设加快推进。搭建“双创”平台,集众智、汇众力,是推进大众创业、万众创新的重要发力点。我们推动出台深化制造业与互联网融合发展的指导意见,加快构建基于互联网的大型制造企业“双创”平台和为中小企业服务的第三方“双创”服务平台,着力形成制造业与互联网深度融合发展的叠加效应、聚合效应、倍增效应。大企业“双创”普及率持续提升,制造业重点行业骨干企业互联网“双创”平台普及率超过60%,为大中小企业从浅层次协同协作向深层次融合融通演进提供了重要载体。鼓励各地利用闲置的厂房和土地,以及现有工业园区等建立小企业创业基地,发展虚拟孵化器、众创空间等创新创业载体。2015年-2017年共公告三批297家国家小型微型企业创业创新示范基地。强化动态管理和示范引导,支持约500家国家中小企业公共服务示范平台,为中小企业提供找得着、用得起、有保障的创业创新服务。

(3) The management system for the integration of informatization and industrialization is constantly improving. We have taken the construction of the management system for the integration of informatization and industrialization as an important measure and a powerful starting point to promote the in-depth integration of informatization and industrialization, marking an important shift from understanding to aggressively moving forward. In 2013, the Industrial Enterprise Informatization and Industrialization Integration Evaluation Specification was officially released, becoming the first national standard for the integration of informatization and industrialization, entering the ISO international standard project establishment process in early 2017. In 2014, the Administrative Measures for the Evaluation of the Integrated Management System of Informatization and Industrialization was issued, which clarified the requirements, management, and supervision methods for evaluation work, and a pilot program for implementing the standard was fully launched. Drawing on management system standards such as ISO9000, the establishment of national standards for the four basic standards of the integrated management system of informatization and industrialization has been completed. With this as a driving force, 6,160 enterprises have carried out the integration of informatization and industrialization, 1,149 enterprises have passed implementation evaluation, and more than 77,000 enterprises have carried out self-assessment, self-diagnosis, and self-benchmarking, improving market competitiveness by implementing the integrated management standard system of informatization and industrialization.

(三)两化融合管理体系日益完善。我们将两化融合管理体系建设作为推进两化深度融合的重要举措和有力抓手,通过企业示范、行业评估、试验区建设等多方面探索,推动社会各界实现了对两化融合从不理解到理解、再到积极推进的重要转变。2013年《工业企业信息化和工业化融合评估规范》正式发布,成为首个两化融合国家标准,并于2017年年初进入ISO国际标准立项程序。2014年出台《信息化和工业化融合管理体系评定管理办法》,明确评定工作要求、管理和监督方式,全面启动贯标试点。借鉴ISO9000等管理体系标准,完成两化融合管理体系4项基础标准的国家标准立项。以此为推动,6160家企业开展两化融合贯标、1149家企业通过贯标评定,7.7万余家企业开展自评估、自诊断、自对标,通过实施两化融合管理标准体系提升了市场竞争力。

(4) Steady progress has been made in service-oriented manufacturing. As a new industrial form integrating manufacturing and the services, service-oriented manufacturing has become an important means for reconstructing the global manufacturing value chain. We have issued a special action guide for the development of service-oriented manufacturing, focusing on key models such as supply chain management, product life cycle management, general integration and general contracting services, and information value-added services. We have selected service-oriented manufacturing demonstration enterprises, demonstration projects and demonstration platforms, organized and carried out a series of campaigns under the “Service-oriented Manufacturing Miles,” accelerated a summarization of demonstration experience and case study promotions, and have guided manufacturing enterprises to strengthen their main manufacturing business, extend the service chain, and promote value-added services. We have supported relevant units in the establishment of the China Service-Oriented Manufacturing Alliance and the construction of a service-oriented manufacturing public service platform. Productive service industries such as industrial design, financial leasing, energy-saving services, and information technology services have gradually grown. The service-oriented manufacturing business of construction machinery, power equipment, fan manufacturing, and other industries has developed rapidly. Businesses such as full life cycle management and financial leasing have increasingly become an important source of corporate profits, and the income from corporate services for some enterprises now exceeds 50% of total income.

(四)服务型制造稳步推进。作为制造与服务融合发展的新型产业形态,服务型制造成为重构全球制造业价值链的重要途径。我们印发发展服务型制造专项行动指南,聚焦供应链管理、产品全生命周期管理、总集成总承包服务、信息增值服务等重点模式,遴选服务型制造示范企业、示范项目和示范平台,组织开展“服务型制造万里行”系列活动,加快示范经验总结和案例推广,引导制造企业做强制造主业、延伸服务链条、促进服务增值。支持相关单位成立中国服务型制造联盟,搭建服务型制造公共服务平台。工业设计、融资租赁、节能服务、信息技术服务等生产性服务业逐步壮大。工程机械、电力设备、风机制造等行业服务型制造业务快速发展,全生命周期管理、融资租赁等业务日益成为企业利润的重要来源,部分企业服务业务收入超过总收入的50%。

V. Development, management, and security have been coordinated, promoting the accelerated transformation of the information and communication industry

五、统筹发展、管理与安全,推动信息通信业加快转型

General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that the strategic deployment of building a cyberpower should be advanced in sync with the Two Centenary Goals, towards the goal of basic popularization of network infrastructure, significant enhancement of independent innovation capabilities, comprehensive development of the information economy, and strong cybersecurity guarantees. We have adhered to the people-centered development philosophy, have strengthened the construction of information infrastructure, have steadily promoted network speed improvements and fee reductions, have strengthened key core technology research, have improved the cybersecurity guarantee system, and have promote the deep integration of information technology in economic and social fields, playing a fundamental and key supporting role in developing the digital economy and building a cyberpower.

习近平总书记强调,建设网络强国的战略部署要与“两个一百年”奋斗目标同步推进,向着网络基础设施基本普及、自主创新能力显著增强、信息经济全面发展、网络安全保障有力的目标不断前进。我们坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,加强信息基础设施建设,扎实推进网络提速降费,加强关键核心技术攻关,健全网络安全保障体系,推动信息技术与经济社会各领域深度融合,为发展数字经济、建设网络强国发挥了基础性、关键性的支撑作用。

(1) The construction of a new generation of information infrastructure has accelerated. The information and communication network is an important infrastructure and the “cornerstone” of a cyberpower. We have deeply implemented the Broadband China strategy, have continued to promote network speed improvements and fee reductions, and have accelerated the construction of a new generation of high-speed, mobile, secure, and ubiquitous information infrastructure. Enterprises have been encouraged to actively raise funds. From 2015 to 2017, cumulative investments exceeded RMB 1.2 trillion for optical fiber construction and reconstruction and 4G network construction. By the end of 2016, it only took two years to build the world’s largest 4G network, and cities across the country have fundamentally built optical network cities. The length of optical cable lines has more than doubled compared to the end of 2012, and mobile broadband has been transformed from 3G to 4G through leapfrog development. As of the end of August of this year, the total number of 4G users in China reached 930 million, and the penetration rate among mobile phone users was 67.2%. In terms of internet capacity expansion, internet bandwidth expanded from 984G at the end of 2012 to 5220G at the end of September 2017, making the problem of poor internet connectivity in China a thing of the past. In terms of the international import and export of the internet, the capacity was expanded from 1.7T at the end of 2014 to 5.4T at the end of September 2017, easing the pressure on international import and export access. Since 2015, the three basic telecommunications companies have successively implemented fixed broadband speeds without raising prices, abolished domestic long-distance and roaming charges for mobile phones, and reduced private line charges and international long-distance phone charges for small and medium-sized enterprises, significantly dropping the level of network charges. From 2015 to 2016, the average cost for fixed broadband dropped by 86.2%, and the cost for mobile broadband dropped by 64.7%. In the first half of 2017, mobile traffic costs were further reduced by 33%, and private line costs for small and medium-sized enterprises were reduced by 15%-20%, continue to increase users’ sense of value. In order to narrow the digital divide between urban and rural areas, three batches of pilot programs for universal telecommunications services have been organized and implemented. The central government has allocated a total of about RMB 12.1 billion in subsidy funds to support fiber-optic broadband construction and upgrades in approximately 130,000 administrative villages in 27 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). After the completion of the three batches of pilot programs, the goal of 98% of administrative villages nationwide with optical fiber access and more than 90% of impoverished villages covered by broadband network set forth in the National 13th Five-Year Plan outline will be achieved ahead of schedule.

(一)加快构建新一代信息基础设施。信息通信网络是重要基础设施,是网络强国的“基石”。我们深入实施宽带中国战略,持续推进网络提速降费,加快构建高速、移动、安全、泛在的新一代信息基础设施。鼓励企业积极筹措资金,2015年-2017年累计投资超过1.2万亿元用于光纤建设改造和4G网络建设。到2016年年底,仅用两年时间,建成全球规模最大的4G网络,全国地市基本建成光网城市,光缆线路长度比2012年年底翻了一番还多,实现了移动宽带从3G到4G的跨越发展。截至今年8月底,我国4G用户总数达到9.3亿户,在移动电话用户中的渗透率为67.2%。在互联网网间扩容方面,从2012年年底的网间带宽984G扩容至2017年9月底的5220G,使我国互联网的互联互通不畅问题成为历史。在互联网国际出入口方面,从2014年年底的1.7T扩容至2017年9月底的5.4T,缓解了国际出入口访问压力。2015年以来,三家基础电信企业相继实行固定宽带提速不提价,全面取消国内手机长途和漫游费,降低中小企业专线资费和国际长途电话费等举措,网络资费水平大幅下降。2015年-2016年固定宽带平均资费水平降幅达86.2%,移动宽带资费水平下降64.7%。2017年上半年,移动流量资费进一步降低了33%,中小企业专线资费标准降低了15%-20%,用户获得感持续增强。为缩小城乡数字鸿沟,组织实施三批电信普遍服务试点,中央财政累计下达补助资金约121亿元,支持全国27个省(区、市)约13万个行政村开展光纤宽带建设和升级改造。三批试点建设完工后,将提前实现国家“十三五”规划纲要提出的全国98%行政村光纤通达和90%以上贫困村覆盖宽带网络的目标。

(2) The modern internet economy has risen rapidly. With the in-depth promotion of network speed improvements and fee reductions and the Internet + campaign, the cross-border integration and in-depth application of the internet in various fields of the economy and society, cloud computing, big data, mobile internet, Internet of Things, as well as new e-commerce, mobile payment, sharing economy, and other new business models have developed rapidly. The cumulative number of mobile applications in China has exceeded 8 million, and the cumulative download volume has exceeded 1.5 trillion times, while the number of applications and the scale of distribution both rank first globally. The IoT production chain is improving day by day, and the number of deployed machine-to-machine (M2M) terminals has exceeded 100 million, making China the world’s largest M2M market. In 2016, China’s e-commerce transaction volume reached RMB 26.1 trillion, accounting for about 39.2% of the global e-commerce retail market. The integration of telecommunications, broadcasting, and internet networks has entered the stage of comprehensive promotion, and integrated business has developed vigorously. As of May 2017, the scale of IPTV users exceeded 100 million. The scale of mobile payment transactions exceeded RMB 81 trillion, ranking first in the world. The sharing economy experienced explosive growth, with an average daily online car-hailing orders reaching 25 million, with the scale of shared bicycle users exceeding 100 million.

(二)现代互联网经济加速崛起。随着网络提速降费和“互联网+”行动的深入推进,互联网与经济社会各领域跨界融合和深度应用,云计算、大数据、移动互联网、物联网以及电子商务、移动支付、分享经济等新业态新模式快速发展。我国移动应用累计数量超过800万款,累计下载量超过1.5万亿次,应用数量和分发规模在全球领先。物联网产业链日益完善,已部署的机器到机器(M2M)终端数量突破1亿,成为全球最大M2M市场。2016年,我国电子商务交易额达到26.1万亿元,交易额约占全球电子商务零售市场的39.2%。三网融合进入全面推广阶段,融合业务蓬勃发展,截至2017年5月,IPTV用户规模突破1亿户。移动支付交易规模超过81万亿元,位居全球之首;分享经济爆发式增长,网约车日均订单数达2500万单,共享单车用户规模过亿。

(3) The new-generation information technology industry system has been continuously improved. To build a cyberpower, we must have our own outstanding technology. In accordance with the requirements of the central government, we have actively studied and formulated a roadmap for the development of core information technology, focusing on breakthroughs in high-end chips, basic software, network architecture, key equipment, and other fields, and have concentrated our strengths to build a technologically advanced, secure, reliable, independent, and controllable industrial system. Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access Long Term Evolution (TD-LTE Advanced) with independent intellectual property rights has become one of the 4G international mainstream standards, winning the 2016 National S&T Progress Award Special Prize. China took the lead in launching 5G research and development in 2013 and has basically completed the second phase of technical solution testing. Our 5G network architecture, flexible system design, coding solutions, and other technologies have been adopted by international standards and are expected to form a global leading edge. We are a global leader in quantum communication technology. Sunway TaihuLight has become the world’s first supercomputer with a peak computing speed exceeding 93 petaflops. China’s integrated circuit system-on-chip (SoC) design capacity is close to the international advanced level, important progress has been made in the research and development of the 16/14 nanometer process, and the 32/28 nanometer manufacturing process has achieved mass production. The production of high-generation LCD panels is moving towards the 10.5-generation line. New technologies and new products such as quantum dot TVs, OLED TVs, and laser TVs are rapidly emerging. The domestic YunOS system has begun to transform from a mobile phone operating system to an Internet of Everything operating system and has achieved product coverage ranging from automobiles and homes to mobile phones and watches.

(三)新一代信息技术产业体系不断完善。建设网络强国,要有自己的技术,有过硬的技术。我们按照中央部署要求,积极研究编制核心信息技术发展路线图,重点突破高端芯片、基础软件、网络体系结构和关键设备等领域,集中优势力量构建技术先进、安全可靠、自主可控的产业体系。具有自主知识产权的时分同步码分多址长期演进技术(TD-LTE Advanced)成为4G国际主流标准之一,获得2016年国家科技进步奖特等奖。我国于2013年率先启动5G研发推进工作,目前已基本完成第二阶段技术方案试验,5G网络架构、灵活系统设计、编码方案等技术被国际标准采纳,有望形成全球领先优势。量子通信技术处于全球领先地位。“神威·太湖之光”成为世界上首台峰值运算速度超过十亿亿次的超级计算机。集成电路系统级芯片(SoC)设计能力接近国际先进水平,16/14纳米工艺研发取得重要进展,32/28纳米制造工艺实现规模量产。高世代液晶面板生产迈向10.5代线。量子点电视、OLED电视、激光电视等新技术新产品加速涌现。国产YunOS系统开始从手机操作系统向万物互联操作系统转变,完成了大到汽车、家居,小到手机、手表的产品覆盖。

(4) The network information security guarantee system has been gradually improved. Without cybersecurity, there is no national security. We have insisted on paying equal attention to security and development, ensuring development with security and promoting security with development. On the one hand, we constantly improved the industry supervision system centered around the internet. We have fully collaborated with the legislation and implementation of the Cybersecurity Law, have formulated and promulgated the Regulations on the Protection of Personal Information of Telecommunications and Internet Users, Guidelines for Cybersecurity Work in the Telecommunications and Internet Industries, Guidelines for the Protection of Industrial Control System Information Security, and other departmental rules, regulations, and normative documents. The Telecom Business Classification Catalog has been revised and promulgated, and new businesses such as cloud services and content distribution networks (CDNs) were brought into the scope of supervision. We have paid close attention to the management of basic internet resources, website filing, and user personal information protection. We have carried out the joint supervision of illegal websites in the Internet + field, and more than 12,000 illegal websites have been shut down in the past five years. On the other hand, we have continued to promote the establishment of technical support capabilities. The national internet financial risk analysis technology platform has been initially established. The real-name registration of telephone users has been fully realized. The fraud phone prevention system has been completed in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country, and the detection and interception of fraudulent calls at home and abroad has basically achieved full coverage. The cybersecurity pilot demonstration covers the entire industry, and the cross-departmental security assessment system for new technologies and new businesses has been further improved. The radio management regulations were revised and implemented, and the special campaign to crack down on illegal broadcasting and fake base stations was carried out in depth. We have completed with excellence major event communications, network information security, and radio security assurance tasks as well as relief communications and emergency communications support tasks for floods, typhoons, earthquakes, and other disasters.

(四)网络信息安全保障体系逐步健全。没有网络安全就没有国家安全。我们坚持安全与发展并重,以安全保发展、以发展促安全。一方面,不断完善以互联网为核心的行业监管体系。全力配合做好《网络安全法》立法和实施工作,制定出台《电信和互联网用户个人信息保护规定》《电信和互联网行业网络安全工作指导意见》《工业控制系统信息安全防护指南》等部门规章和规范性文件。修订出台《电信业务分类目录》,将云服务、内容分发网络(CDN)等新业务纳入监管范畴。狠抓互联网基础资源、网站备案、用户个人信息保护等管理。对“互联网+”领域的违法违规网站展开联合监管,五年来累计关停违法违规网站1.2万余个。另一方面,持续推进技术支撑能力建设。初步建成国家互联网金融风险分析技术平台;全面实现了电话用户实名登记;建设完成全国31个省(区、市)诈骗电话防范系统,基本实现对境内外诈骗电话的检测拦截全覆盖。网络安全试点示范覆盖全行业,新技术新业务跨部门安全评估体系进一步健全。无线电管理条例修订施行,打击治理“黑广播”、伪基站专项行动深入开展。出色完成重大活动通信、网络信息安全和无线电安全保障任务,以及洪涝、台风、地震等抢险救灾通信和应急通信保障任务。

The practice of industrial and informatization development in the past five years has fully proved that to accelerate the promotion of new industrialization, we must adhere to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, and we must adhere to the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s series of important speeches and the new concepts, new ideas, and new strategies for state governance. Looking to the future, we will unite more closely around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, firmly establish the Four Consciousness, and strengthen the Four Matters of Confidence. We will fully implement the decisions and arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, fully implement Made in China 2025, and deepen the drive for innovation. We will focus on promoting the strategic transformation of manufacturing from quantitative expansion to quality improvement, accelerate the process of building a manufacturing power and a cyberpower, and make new and greater contributions to the realization of the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

五年来工业和信息化发展实践充分证明,加快推动新型工业化,必须坚持以习近平同志为核心的党中央的集中统一领导,必须坚持以习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神和治国理政新理念新思想新战略为指引。面向未来,我们将更加紧密地团结在以习近平同志为核心的党中央周围,高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,牢固树立“四个意识”,坚定“四个自信”,不折不扣贯彻落实党中央、国务院决策部署,全面实施“中国制造2025”,深化创新驱动,着力推动制造业从数量扩张向质量提高的战略性转变,加快制造强国和网络强国建设进程,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦作出新的更大贡献。

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Cite This Page

苗圩 (Miao Wei) (2022). "Taking Solid Steps in the Construction of a Manufacturing Power and a Cyberpower: New Achievements in China’s Industry and Information Technology Development Since the 18th Party Congress [制造强国和网络强国建设迈出坚实步伐: 党的十八大以来我国工业和信息化发展新成就]". Interpret: China, Original work published October 17, 2017, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/taking-solid-steps-in-the-construction-of-a-manufacturing-power-and-a-cyberpower-new-achievements-in-chinas-industry-and-information-technology-development-since-the-18th-party-congress/

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