建设现代化强国,中国应该怎么做?
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How Should China Build a Modernized Superpower?

建设现代化强国,中国应该怎么做?

This is a lengthy analysis from news outlet Xinhua discusses the policies and strategies Beijing is putting in place to transform China into a global high-tech “superpower” by 2035. The author argues that China’s science and technology innovation model has been in “catch-up mode” for some time, seeking to imitate innovations from developed countries, which has led to an underinvestment in basic research and a “lack of originality.” Top-down support for the development of specific key technologies and fields is needed, the author suggests, as is organizational and regulatory change to develop an ecosystem supportive of greater innovation.


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More than 50 years after China generated its first kilowatt hour of electricity from nuclear power, the Hualong One nuclear power unit was put into commercial operation here in a global first.

在中国利用核动力发出第一度电的50多年后,全球第一台“华龙一号”核电机组在这里投入商业运行。

The national calling card for the entry of Chinese nuclear power onto the world stage, Hualong One is China’s third-generation, million-kilowatt nuclear power technology with completely independent intellectual property rights. Its success indicates that China has broken the foreign monopoly on nuclear power technology, has officially entered the ranks of advanced countries in nuclear power technology, and is gradually moving from a major nuclear power country to a superpower in nuclear power.

作为中国核电走向世界的“国家名片”,“华龙一号”是中国具有完全自主知识产权的三代百万千瓦级核电技术,其成功问世标志着中国打破了国外核电技术垄断,正式进入核电技术先进国家行列,并逐步由核电大国走向核电强国。

“One of the spiritual tenants of China’s nuclear power development is to unswervingly follow the path of independent innovation,” said Yu Jianfeng, chairman and Party secretary of the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). “In terms of key and core technologies, we have made one breakthrough after another, and there is no ‘stranglehold’ problem.”

“我国核电发展的一个灵魂性思想,就是坚定不移走自主创新的道路。”中核集团党组书记、董事长余剑锋说,“对于关键核心技术,我们都一件件进行了突破,没有‘卡脖子’问题。”

“There is no ‘stranglehold’ problem.” In just a few words, this states that the core of a powerful country is its ability to realize its intentions relying on its own strength.

“没有‘卡脖子’问题”——短短七个字,道出了“强国”的核心,就是具有依靠自身力量实现意图的能力。

China’s GDP went from less than 400 billion yuan in 1978 to 10 trillion yuan in 2000 and on to 50 trillion yuan in 2012. Today, it has exceeded 100 trillion yuan. In just over 40 years, China has achieved a historic leap from standing up to becoming rich.

中国国内生产总值(GDP)从1978年的不足4000亿元,到2000年突破10万亿元、2012年突破50万亿元,再到如今突破百万亿元,短短四十余年,实现了从站起来到富起来的历史性跨越。

Standing at a new starting point, China, as the world’s largest developing country, has embarked on a new journey of becoming strong: we will basically achieve socialist modernization by 2035 and build a modernized socialist superpower by the middle of this century.

站在新起点,作为全世界最大的发展中国家,中国又踏上了实现强起来的新征程:到二〇三五年基本实现社会主义现代化,到本世纪中叶建成社会主义现代化强国。

Throughout human history, the modernization of a country with a population of over 1 billion is completely unprecedented. Even more, what China wants to achieve is modernization that brings prosperity to all the people, modernization that coordinates material civilization and spiritual civilization, modernization that achieves the harmonious coexistence of man and nature, and modernization that walks the path of peaceful development. All these mean that China is going to become stronger, but we are also facing unprecedented challenges and difficulties.

人类历史上,还从未有过一个人口规模超10亿的国家实现现代化的先例。更何况中国要实现的,是全体人民共同富裕的现代化,是物质文明与精神文明相协调的现代化,是人与自然和谐共生的现代化,是走和平发展道路的现代化……这些都意味着中国要“变强”,面临的挑战和困难也前所未有。

The Fifth Plenum of the 19th Central Committee has made a series of deployments to outline a clear path for China to go “from rich to strong”: persist in innovation-driven development and comprehensively shape new development advantages; accelerate the development of a modern industrial system and promote the optimization and upgrade of the economic system; form a strong domestic market and build a new development pattern; comprehensively deepen reforms; and build a high-level socialist market economy system.

党的十九届五中全会已经作出一系列部署,勾勒出中国“由富变强”的清晰路径:坚持创新驱动发展,全面塑造发展新优势;加快发展现代产业体系,推动经济体系优化升级;形成强大国内市场,构建新发展格局;全面深化改革,构建高水平社会主义市场经济体制……

“China’s build-up into a modernized superpower will bring about great changes unprecedented in human history.” In an interview with a reporter from the new publication Outlook Weekly, Han Baojiang, director of the Economics Teaching and Research Department of the Central Party School (National Academy of Governance), said that, more meaningfully, China’s road to a modernized socialist superpower will transform the one-dimensional evolution trajectory of modernization led by Europe and the United States. It will destroy the myth that “modernization is equivalent to Westernization” and explore a new path to becoming a comprehensively modernized superpower for developing countries.

“中国建成现代化强国,将带来人类历史上前所未有的大变革。”在接受《瞭望》新闻周刊记者采访时,中央党校(国家行政学院)经济学教研部主任韩保江表示,更具意义的是,中国的社会主义现代化强国之路,将改变以欧美为主导的单维演进的现代化历程,打破“现代化等于西方化”的迷思,为发展中国家探索出一个新的现代化路径。

Make Efforts for S&T Independence and Self-reliance

攻坚科技自立自强

Early in the morning, Dawodang, Pingtang, Guizhou. Radio signal data from the vast universe are captured by the telescope’s huge reflecting surface and continuously transmitted to the Guiyang Astronomical Big Data Base more than 100 kilometers away.

清晨,贵州平塘大窝凼。望远镜偌大的反射面从茫茫宇宙中抓取的射电信号数据,源源不断传输到100多公里之外的贵阳天文大数据基地。

The 500-meter aperture spherical radio telescope known as the China Sky Eye has discovered 279 pulsars since its commissioning on September 25, 2016, more than twice the total number of pulsars discovered by other telescopes in the world during the same period. It has captured multiple extremely rare rapid radio bursts, and it participated in the discovery of the origin mechanism of a fast radio burst, which was selected as one of the top ten scientific discoveries by the publication Nature.

被誉为“中国天眼”的500米口径球面射电望远镜,自2016年9月25日落成启用以来,已发现279颗脉冲星,是同期国际上其他望远镜发现脉冲星总数的2倍多;多次捕捉到极罕见的快速射电暴爆发;参与揭示的一种快速射电暴起源机制入选《自然》杂志十大科学发现……

Constantly strengthening basic research, striving to improve original innovation capabilities, and achieving more “starting from scratch” breakthroughs—the construction of the China Sky Eye is a true portrayal of China’s acceleration in building an S&T superpower and striving to achieve independence and self-reliance in S&T.

不断加强基础研究,努力提升原始创新能力,实现更多“从0到1”的突破……“中国天眼”的建设正是当下中国加快建设科技强国、努力实现科技自立自强的真实写照。

For a long time, China’s S&T innovation has generally been in catch-up mode, and many innovations are based on imitation from behind.

长期以来,我国科技创新总体上是一种追赶模式,很多创新以跟踪模仿为主。

“There are two important prerequisites for this development model: first, we must have a relatively large gap between our technology and that of developed countries, giving us objects that can be imitated and referenced; second, more developed countries must be willing to export some non-strategic technologies and products to us due to consideration of economic interests,” said Sui Jigang, a researcher at the Institute of Science and Technology Development Strategy of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in an interview. However, when the technology of latecomer countries is advancing rapidly and approaching the frontiers global technology, they have begun to enter a “no man’s land” in many fields, and there are no suitable objects to imitate. On the other hand, in order to maintain their competitive advantages, developed countries are unwilling to continue to transfer advanced technology, and even use various means to curb the rapid catch-up of late-developing countries.

“这种发展模式有两个重要前提,其一,我们与发达国家存在比较大的技术差距,有可以模仿参照的对象;其二,更多出于经济利益考虑,发达国家也愿意向我们输出一些非战略性技术和产品。”采访中,中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院研究员眭纪刚谈到,但当后发国家的技术快速进步、接近世界前沿的时候,一方面在很多领域开始步入“无人区”,没有合适的对象可以模仿;另一方面,发达国家为了保持竞争优势地位,不愿继续转让先进技术,甚至会通过各种手段遏制后发国家的快速追赶。

In this context, the Proposals of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee on Formulating the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and Long-Term Goals for 2035 (hereinafter referred to as the “Proposals”) clearly requires that we uphold the core position of innovation in the overall situation of China’s modernization construction and view S&T independence and self-reliance as a strategic support of national development.

在此背景下,《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》(以下简称《建议》)明确要求,坚持创新在我国现代化建设全局中的核心地位,把科技自立自强作为国家发展的战略支撑。

Consolidate Basic Research

夯实基础研究

In the field of scientific research, basic research is the root of S&T innovation. Only by consolidating basic research can we gather enough stamina for continuous S&T breakthroughs.

在科研领域,基础研究是科技创新的“根”,只有夯实基础研究,才能为科技的持续突破备足后劲。

Long-term, imitation-style innovation has led China to give insufficient attention and investment to basic research. Our weak basic research and lack of originality have become prominent shortcomings that hinder China’s S&T independence and self-reliance.

长期的模仿式创新,导致我国对基础研究的重视程度和投入力度不足,基础研究薄弱、原创能力较为缺乏已成为阻碍我国实现科技自立自强的突出短板。

At a symposium of scientists in September 2020, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave an in-depth analysis: China is faced with many “stranglehold” technological problems. Their root lies in lagging basic theoretical research. We have failed to clarify things at the level of the source and foundation.

在2020年9月的科学家座谈会上,习近平总书记作出深刻剖析:“我国面临的很多‘卡脖子’技术问题,根子是基础理论研究跟不上,源头和底层的东西没有搞清楚。”

For stubborn diseases, we must prescribe the right medicine.

针对顽疾,需对症下药。

First, we must strengthen the top-level design and system layout. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, China issued Several Opinions on Comprehensively Strengthening Basic Research (关于全面加强基础科学研究的若干意见), formulated the Work Program to Strengthen Basic Research with Original Innovations (加强”从0到1″基础研究工作方案), and implemented Several Key Measures to Strengthen Basic Research in the New Situation (新形势下加强基础研究若干重点举措). At the same time, the state also supported the construction of 13 national applied mathematics centers in Beijing, Shanghai, and other places and deployed a number of basic research projects in key areas such as quantum science, stem cells, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology.

首先,强化顶层设计和系统布局。“十三五”期间,我国出台了《关于全面加强基础科学研究的若干意见》,制定了《加强“从0到1”基础研究工作方案》,实施了《新形势下加强基础研究若干重点举措》。与此同时,国家还支持北京、上海等地建设13个国家应用数学中心,并围绕量子科学、干细胞、合成生物学、纳米科技等重点领域部署一批基础性研究项目。

This year, China will also formulate and implement a 10-year action plan for basic research. Some analysts believe that this is an important guarantee to support China’s entry into the ranks of leading innovative countries in 2030 and achieve the goal of China’s “Three Steps” strategy of becoming a global S&T innovation superpower by 2050.

今年,我国还将制定实施基础研究十年行动方案。有分析认为,这是支撑我国2030年跻身创新型国家前列,实现我国2050年建成世界科技创新强国“三步走”战略目标的重要保障。

Second, we must increase capital investment. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, China’s investment in basic research increased from 71.6 billion yuan in 2015 to 133.56 billion yuan in 2019, with an average annual growth rate of 16.9 percent, much higher than the increase in R&D investment from society as a whole. However, in 2019, basic research investment in China accounted for only 6 percent of society-wide R&D investment, while developed countries had rates from 15 to 25 percent. This gap is not small.

其次,加大资金投入力度。“十三五”期间,我国对基础研究的投入力度,从2015年的716亿元增长到2019年的1335.6亿元,年均增幅达到16.9%,大大高于全社会研发投入的增幅。但2019年,我国基础研究投入占全社会研发投入比重仅为6.0%,发达国家为15%~25%,差距不小。

According to experts, on the one hand, China should continue to increase fiscal support, strive to implement precise support for key technologies and core fields, ensure the detailed implementation of various support policies, and actively allow government investment to play a guiding and driving role with respect to society-wide R&D investment. On the other hand, we must broaden funding channels, encourage all sectors of society to increase investment in R&D expenses, provide stable support to basic research and applied research, and create a new situation for diversified investment.

专家们表示,一方面我国应持续加大财政支持力度,努力实现对关键技术和核心领域的精准支持,确保各项支持政策落实落细,积极发挥政府投入对全社会研发投入的引导和拉动作用;另一方面,要拓宽经费投入渠道,鼓励社会各界增加研发经费投入,稳定支持基础研究和应用研究,开创多元化投入新局面。

We must strengthen infrastructure construction. Over the past five years, China has deployed a number of nationally important instruments, such as a 500-meter aperture spherical radio telescope and spallation neutron source, and supported the construction of 20 national scientific data centers, 31 national biological germplasm and experimental material resource banks, and 98 national scientific observation and research field stations. Such infrastructure has played an important role in improving China’s basic research capabilities.

加强基础设施建设。过去五年,我国部署建设了500米口径的球面射电望远镜、散裂中子源等一批国之重器,支持建设了20个国家科学数据中心,31个国家生物种质和实验材料资源库,98个国家野外科学观测研究站。这些基础设施对于提高我国基础研究能力发挥了重要作用。

According to the requirements of the Proposals, during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, China will also establish a number of national laboratories, optimize and adjust existing state key laboratories, and build a number of state key laboratories that focus on major original innovations and breakthroughs in key and core technologies.

按照《建议》要求,“十四五”期间,我国还将组建若干国家实验室,优化调整现有国家重点实验室,围绕重大原始创新和关键核心技术突破新建一批国家重点实验室。

Make Efforts for Key and Core Technologies

攻坚关键核心技术

Key and core technologies are the pillars of the nation, and they are also the vital lifeline for achieving S&T independence and self-reliance. The “stranglehold” phenomenon encountered from time to time in recent years indicates that some key and core technologies have become some of the most serious bottlenecks restricting China’s development.

关键核心技术是国之重器,也是实现科技自立自强的命门所在。近年来不时遭遇的“卡脖子”现象,说明部分关键核心技术受制于人已成为制约我国发展的最大瓶颈之一。

The key and core technologies are located at the top of the S&T chain and production chain, making it difficult to tackle key issues. Moreover, they often involve different disciplines and fields, so efforts cannot be accomplished by a certain department, a certain region, or a certain enterprise alone. We must gather high-quality resources from different fields to tackle key points.

关键核心技术,处于科技链、产业链顶端,攻关难度大。而且往往涉及不同学科和领域,单靠某个部门、某个地区、某个企业难以完成,需要聚集不同领域的优质资源攻关。

“The greater the challenge, the more we must give play to the advantages of institutional assurance,” Sui Jigang said. The new structure for leveraging national capabilities can organically combine the roles of the government and the market and drive the two to exert their respective advantages and form a joint force of collaborative innovation so as to maximize the benefits of resource allocation and optimize efficiency.

“挑战越大,越要发挥制度保障优势。”眭纪刚谈到,新型举国体制能够将政府与市场的作用有机结合,驱动这两者发挥出各自优势并形成协同创新的合力,使资源配置效益最大化和效率最优化。

To better allow the new structure for leveraging national capabilities to play its role, Sui Jigang believes that efforts can be made in the following areas.

如何更好发挥新型举国体制的作用,眭纪刚认为可从以下几方面着力:

Clarify the scope of the new structure for leveraging national capabilities. It should cover major areas related to national security and long-term goals, including strategic S&T innovation projects, rather than replacing S&T innovation projects that are suitable for decentralized resource allocation.

明确新型举国体制的范围。应该是事关国家安全、长远目标的重大领域,包括战略性科技创新项目或工程,而不是取代那些适宜分散式资源配置的科技创新项目。

Achieve the transformation of the innovation governance paradigm. The government has transformed from the sole manager to one of multiple participants in governance, from a focus on resource management to a focus on multi-method governance. In strategic fields, we must explore the establishment of a government-led, innovative model in which entrepreneurs, scientists, and the public positively interact with each other and where the state, enterprises, and social forces each perform their duties and cooperate closely so as to realize the combination of government-led and market-driven.

实现创新治理范式的转变。政府从唯一管理者向多元主体共同参与治理转变,从资源管理为主向多手段治理转变。在战略领域探索建立政府主导,企业家、科学家、公众良性互动,国家与企业、社会力量各司其职、密切合作的创新模式,实现政府主导与市场驱动的结合。

Construct a reasonable innovation organizational system. We must strengthen national strategic S&T capabilities in strategic areas related to national security and accelerate the construction of the state laboratory system. We must provide stable support for a group of scientific research teams who undertake national missions. We must establish industrial technology alliances in key and core technology areas to strengthen collaborative innovation among government, industry, academia, and research.

构建合理的创新组织体系。在事关国家安全的战略领域强化国家战略科技力量,加快推进国家实验室体系建设。稳定支持一批肩负国家使命的科研团队。在关键核心技术领域建立(产业)技术联盟,加强政产学研协同创新。

Establish efficient innovation operating mechanisms. Drawing on the experience of major national S&T projects, we must establish national S&T macro decisionmaking mechanisms in key and core technology areas; establish cross-sector, cross-department coordination mechanisms in resource allocation and diversified financing mechanisms; explore efficient R&D organization mechanisms and improve responsibility mechanisms for project work; establish reasonable performance evaluation mechanisms during and after events; and establish government procurement policies that are in line with international rules and market mechanisms.

建立高效的创新运行机制。借鉴国家科技重大专项经验,在关键核心技术领域建立国家科技宏观决策机制;在资源配置中建立跨领域、跨部门统筹机制,以及多元融资机制;在项目攻关中探索高效研发组织机制、完善责任机制;在事中和事后建立合理绩效评价机制;建立与国际规则和市场机制接轨的政府采购政策等。

Enhance Enterprise Innovation Capabilities

提升企业创新能力

In recent years, Chinese enterprises have continued to strengthen their status as the mainstays of innovation. In 2019, Chinese enterprises invested 169.218 billion yuan in R&D expenditures, accounting for 76.4 percent of national R&D expenditures. A total of 507 Chinese enterprises were listed among the top 2,500 global enterprises in terms of R&D investment, as recognized by international organizations.

近年来,我国企业的创新主体地位不断增强。2019年,我国企业研发经费投入16921.8亿元,占全国研发经费的比重达76.4%。当年共有507家中国企业入围国际组织认定的全球研发投入2500强。

However, compared with developed countries, Chinese enterprises have weak innovation capabilities, which is mainly manifested in aspects such as insufficient investment in basic research and development, insufficient supply of key general purpose technologies, and incomplete incentive mechanisms for enterprise innovation.

但与发达国家相比,我国企业创新能力不强,集中表现在基础研发投入不够、关键共性技术供给不足、激励企业创新的机制还不健全等方面。

The Proposals propose that we enhance the mainstay status of enterprises in innovation and promote the aggregation of various innovation factors among enterprises.

《建议》提出,强化企业创新主体地位,促进各类创新要素向企业集聚。

How can we accomplish this? Zhang Chidong, a researcher at the Institute of Science and Technology Development Strategy of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that the first thing is to give full play to the decisive role of market mechanisms in resource allocation; restrain government from reaching beyond its proper area; address areas overlooked by the government; and straighten out the relationships between internal government agencies, the central government and local governments, and various departments.

如何实现?中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院研究员张赤东谈到,首先是充分发挥市场机制对资源配置的决定性作用,克制政府越位,弥补政府缺位,理顺政府内部、中央与地方以及各部门之间的关系。

Second, we must strengthen the protection of intellectual property rights, ensure the effective implementation of independent innovation, and prevent bad money from driving out good money.

其次,加强知识产权保护,保证自主创新有效实施,避免劣币驱逐良币。

Third, we must reform the management system of state-owned enterprises, stimulate their entrepreneurial innovation, and make it so there is no “fear of trouble in the rear” in the technological innovation efforts of state-owned enterprises.

再次,改革国有企业管理制度,激发企业家创新精神,让国有企业技术创新没有“后顾之忧”。

Finally, we must give private enterprises the treatment of state-owned enterprises, encourage private enterprises to participate more in national S&T projects and major technological innovation activities, and enhance the independent technological innovation capabilities of private enterprises.

最后,给予民营企业以国民企业待遇,鼓励民营企业更多参与国家科技计划项目与重大技术创新活动,提升民营企业自主技术创新能力。

Unleash the Innovation Talent Dividend

释放创新人才红利

“Innovating to win and high-quality development: the key is relying on people,” said Sun Rui, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Personnel Sciences and director of the Talent Theory and Technology Research Office. As China’s development shifts from factor-driven to innovation-driven, talents become the first resource for development. To fully stimulate and release the talent dividend, the development of Chinese talent undertakings must shift from prioritizing quantity and scale to prioritizing quality and level.

“创新制胜,高质量发展,关键靠人。”中国人事科学研究院研究员、人才理论与技术研究室主任孙锐谈到,当中国发展由要素驱动转向创新驱动,人才成为发展的第一资源。充分激发释放人才红利,我国人才事业发展要从数量、规模优先转向质量、水平优先。

Enhance the Training of Top Talents

加大拔尖人才培养

Since the founding of New China, from youth classes to independent recruitment and on to top talent training programs, our country has been striving to cultivate top innovative talents relying on basic disciplines. According to data from the Ministry of Education, since the implementation of the Top Talent Training Program 1.0, more than 10,000 students have been trained. Of these, 98 percent of the 6,647 graduates continue on to postgraduate studies and 32 percent entered programs ranked in the top 50 globally for advanced studies, gradually showing their potential to become leading talents in science in the future.

新中国成立以来,从少年班到自主招生,再到拔尖计划,我国依托基础学科在培养拔尖创新人才道路上孜孜以求。教育部数据显示,拔尖计划1.0实施以来,已累计培养学生1万余名,毕业的6647名学生中有98%继续攻读研究生,32%进入世界前50名的学科深造,逐步呈现出成为未来科学领军人才的潜质。

In recent years, the state has improved its arrangements for training top talents in basic disciplines.

近年来,国家加大了对基础学科拔尖人才培养的布局。

Arrangement 1: Start the implementation of the Top Talent Training Program 2.0.

布局一:启动实施拔尖计划2.0。

In 2018, the Ministry of Education partnered with six departments, including the Ministry of Science and Technology, to initiate the implementation of the Top Talent Training Program 2.0. The plan calls for the construction of a batch of top talent student training bases in the fields of basic science, basic liberal arts, and basic medicine. At present, 199 bases have been selected in two batches.

2018年,教育部会同科技部等六部门启动实施拔尖计划2.0。拟在基础理科、基础文科、基础医科领域建设一批基础学科拔尖学生培养基地,目前已分两批遴选出199个基地。

Arrangement 2: Starting from 2020, the independent recruitment of colleges and universities will be canceled and the Plan for Strengthening Basic Academic Disciplines (强基计划) will be implemented.

布局二:2020年起,取消高校自主招生,实行“强基计划”。

This will focus on key areas such as high-end chips and software, smart S&T, new materials, advanced manufacturing, and national security, as well as humanities and social science fields where talents are scarce. It will highlight the supporting and leading role of basic disciplines, focusing on enrolling students in related majors such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology as well as history, philosophy, and ancient writing systems. This aims to select and train students who are interested in serving the country’s major strategic needs and have excellent comprehensive qualities or top attainment in basic subjects.

聚焦高端芯片与软件、智能科技、新材料、先进制造和国家安全等关键领域及人才紧缺的人文社会科学领域,突出基础学科的支撑引领作用,重点在数学、物理、化学、生物及历史、哲学、古文字学等相关专业招生。旨在选拔培养有志于服务国家重大战略需求且综合素质优秀或基础学科拔尖的学生。

Refine the Talent Evaluation System

完善人才评价体系

Innovation is driven by talents, and the science of talent evaluation standards is of critical importance. The Proposals emphasize that we must improve the S&T talent evaluation system oriented toward innovation capability, quality, practical results, and contributions.

创新驱动源于人才驱动,人才评价标准的科学至关重要。《建议》强调,健全以创新能力、质量、实效、贡献为导向的科技人才评价体系。

At present, in the field of innovation, the administrative tone of evaluations is too pronounced, the evaluation methods are one dimensional, the evaluation classifications are insufficient, and the “Four Only” evaluation problems are prominent.

目前,在创新领域,评价行政色彩过浓、评价手段单一、评价分类不足、“四唯”评价问题突出。

The paradigm of scientific research evaluation, innovation evaluation, and talent evaluation under the path of traditional catch-up development, planned management, and imitative scientific research has guided a large number of “from one to ten” imitative innovations [innovations building on an established foundation] but has not effectively stimulated the production of a large number of “zero to one” original innovations [with no established foundation or model to follow].

传统跟随式发展、计划式管理、模仿型科研道路下的科研评价、创新评价和人才评价范式,引导了大量“从1到10”的模仿性创新,没有有效激发大量从“0到1”原创性创新的产生。

Sun Rui said that in the context of the advancement of national strategies, traditional, plan-based, and programmatic talent evaluation methods have a hard time meeting the strategic needs and practical requirements of development in the new era.

孙锐表示,在国家战略实现进阶的大背景下,传统的、计划式的、程式化的人才评价方式已经难以适合新时代发展的战略需求和实践要求。

Since the central government issued the Opinions on Deepening the Reform of Institutions and Mechanisms for Talent Development, Guiding Opinions on the Classification and Promotion of the Reform of the Talent Evaluation Mechanism, and other policies in 2016, important steps have been taken in the reform of China’s talent evaluation system. Compared with the traditional evaluation system, major progress has been made in providing different talent evaluation guidance for basic, applied, and philosophy and social science research talents as well as different categories of talents such as education and healthcare. This has given professional evaluations a more in-depth “hierarchical classification.”

2016年中央出台《关于深化人才发展体制机制改革的意见》《关于分类推进人才评价机制改革的指导意见》等政策以来,我国人才评价制度改革迈出重要步伐。与传统评价制度相比,其重大进步在于针对基础、应用和哲学社会科学研究人才,以及教育、医疗卫生等不同门类人才等给出不同的人才评价导向,深化了“分层分类”的专业化评价。

In Sun Rui’s view, the “Four Only” problem in current talent evaluation is still due to the insufficient implementation of “hierarchical classification” talent evaluation, the deviations of talent evaluation standard decision mechanisms, and the insufficient flexibility of talent evaluation. Some departments and units are also accustomed to using traditional simplified, “one-size-fits-all” evaluations, or indirect evaluation of the “number of results” instead of direct evaluation.

在孙锐看来,当前人才评价中的“四唯”问题,还是由于“分层分类”人才评价落实得不够,人才评价标准决定机制有偏差,人才评价柔性不足;一些部门和单位还习惯于传统的简单化、“一刀切”评价,以“数成果数量”的间接评价来代替直接评价等。

He emphasized that it is necessary to deepen the reform of hierarchical classification talent evaluation mechanisms; use professional attributes and job requirements as the basis; give full play to the roles of diverse entities such as the government, the market, professional organizations, and employers; and establish a talent evaluation mechanism that conforms to the patterns of growth of different talents and the characteristics of different careers in a classified manner.

他强调,要深入推进分层分类人才评价机制改革,以职业属性和岗位要求为基础,充分发挥政府、市场、专业组织和用人单位等多元主体的作用,分类建立符合不同人才成长规律和职业专业特点的人才评价机制。

Improve Task Implementation and Talent Selection Mechanisms to Get the Best Out of Talents

健全任务实施与人才选拔机制 实现人尽其才

In just three seconds, AI can complete a quantitative analysis based on a patient’s CT images and give auxiliary diagnosis results for Covid-19. During the pandemic, the “Intelligent Evaluation System of Chest CT for Coronaviral Pneumonia,” jointly developed by the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and YITU Technology was deployed in dozens of designated treatment institutions. This is one of many AI application scenarios implemented by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology through competitive bidding (揭榜招标, revealing a list of issues to be solved and soliciting proposals publicly).

只需要3秒,人工智能就能根据受检者CT影像完成定量分析,并给出新冠肺炎的辅助诊断结果。疫情期间,上海市公共卫生临床中心和依图科技合作开发的“胸部CT新型冠状病毒肺炎智能评价系统”,部署在几十家定点收治机构。这是工业和信息化部通过揭榜招标落地的诸多人工智能应用场景之一。

In talent training and evaluation, it is even more important to select talents and entrust them with important tasks. Open competition (揭榜挂帅, revealing a list of issues to be solved and finding to best people for the job), in essence, is to target key and core technologies for focused research efforts; break restrictions on identity, education, and age; and establish a set of institutions and mechanisms for selecting and appointing talents and allowing those with ability to stand out.

培养人才、评价人才,更要选拔出人才委以重任。揭榜挂帅,本质上就是瞄准关键核心技术进行重点攻关,打破身份、学历、年龄等限制,建立一套选贤任能、让能者脱颖而出的体制机制。

In 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the Work Plan for Soliciting Units to Undertake Key Tasks of Innovations in the Next Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry. It is hoped that through the method of open competition, a group of units with strong innovation ability and mastery of key and core technologies will be selected from the many entities active in AI innovation. Subsequently, a number of innovative private enterprises in the AI field, such as Intellifusion, Megvii, and UISEE, have all won “national brand” (国字号) tasks.

2018年,工信部发布了《新一代人工智能产业创新重点任务揭榜工作方案》,希望通过“揭榜挂帅”方式,从众多人工智能创新活跃的主体中,遴选一批创新能力强、掌握关键核心技术的单位。随后,云天励飞、旷视、驭势科技等一众AI领域的创新型民企,都拿下了“国字号”任务。

From “open competition,” “soldier’s pledges” (军令状), and “milestone assessments,” to “reward system” and “horse-race system,” in recent years, China has continuously optimized and adjusted the organizational, implementation, and talent selection mechanisms for major S&T tasks to allow capable people to stand out. The core of these efforts is to stimulate the innovative vitality of talents through market mechanisms and to make the best use of their talents.

从“揭榜挂帅”“军令状”“里程碑式考核”,到“悬赏制”“赛马制”,近年来,我国不断优化调整重大科技任务的组织实施机制和人才选拔机制,让有能力的人脱颖而出,其核心是以市场机制激发人才创新活力,实现人尽其才。

Sun Rui recommended that a unified national human resources market system be established to coordinate the work of talents inside and outside the system through a market-based approach. We must consolidate the basic structure of talent big data statistics, establish a monitoring system for supply and demand in the talent resource market, and build a socialized third-party authoritative talent archive information access system. We must allow professional associations and industry alliances to better play their roles in talent work and use market-oriented means to fully explore and align with the needs of talent innovation and entrepreneurship.

孙锐建议,建立国家统一的人力资源市场体系,以市场化方法统筹体制内外人才工作。夯实人才大数据统计基础构架,建立人才资源市场供求监测体系,构建社会化第三方权威性人才档案信息存取制度。要更好地发挥专业协会和产业联盟在人才工作中的作用,用市场化手段充分挖掘和对接人才创新创业需求。

Promote Production Chain Optimization

推动产业链现代化

Why is the world’s second-largest economy still subject to others? Clues can be found in a news story from China’s auto industry that occurred not long ago.

全球第二大经济体,为何还会受制于人?从中国汽车行业不久前所发生的一些新闻中,可以找到线索。

At the beginning of December last year, a news article that stated domestic car companies suffered from a chip shortage that affected their production aroused concern. A small chip can cause many domestic auto companies to “admit defeat” at the same time, which is shocking to many people. How can the world’s largest producer and consumer of automobiles be so weak?

去年12月初,一则关于国内车企因遭遇“芯片荒”致使生产受到影响的消息,引发关注。一块小小的芯片就能让国内多家车企同时“吃瘪”,不免让人心里发怵:原来世界汽车产销第一大国,有时候竟然如此“虚弱”。

With the rise of the “New Four Modernizations,” the importance of chips in the automobile manufacturing industry has become more and more obvious. In 2019, over 2.5 billion in-vehicle micro-control units, or MCUs (the most important functional chips in automobiles), were installed worldwide. The chip market is mainly divided between five major foreign suppliers such as Infineon. China’s auto chip self-sufficiency rate is less than 10 percent, and the security of production chains and supply chains is very fragile.

“新四化”浪潮兴起,芯片在汽车制造业中的重要性愈发明显。有数据显示,2019年全球车载MCU(微控制单元,汽车最主要的功能芯片)安装量超过25亿颗。市场主要被英飞凌等国外五大供应商占据,我国汽车芯片自给率不足10%,产业链供应链安全性很脆弱。

The problem is that similar situations exist to varying degrees in many industrial sectors in China.

问题在于,类似局面在我国不少产业领域都不同程度存在。

In an interview, Xu Zhaoyuan, deputy director of the Industrial Economic Research Department of the Development Research Center of the State Council, said that China is already the world’s largest industrial producer. In most industrial product fields, China can produce very advanced products. But many of these products are just the result of assembly and system integration, and they need to rely on foreign core basic components and key basic materials. “In other words, China’s supply chain for the production of ‘advanced products’ is not advanced. It still has many shortcomings, deficiencies, and weaknesses.”

采访中,国务院发展研究中心产业经济研究部副部长许召元谈到,我国已经是全球最大工业生产国,在大多数工业品中,可以生产出非常先进的产品。但其中很多产品只是组装和系统集成,需要依赖国外的核心基础零部件和关键基础材料,“也就是说,我国生产‘先进产品’的供应链并不先进,还存在很多短板、缺失和弱项”。

Winning the tough battle from product modernization to production chain modernization has become one of the core tasks in building a modernized socialist country in an all-round way.

打赢从“产品现代化”到“产业链现代化”的攻坚战,已经成为全面建设社会主义现代化国家的核心任务之一。

Addressing Shortcomings: Remain Calm in a Crisis

补短板:在危机中保持淡定

In this car chip crisis, there are also car companies that were able to remain relatively calm, such as BYD. In an announcement, it stated that in addition to its own use, the IGBT chips produced by the company are also sold abroad, and there is no “stranglehold” problem.

在这场汽车芯片危机中,也有车企比较“淡定”,比如比亚迪。其在公告中表示,公司生产的IGBT芯片除自用外,还有外销,没有“卡脖子”的问题。

This is mainly due to its strong self-developed core technology. As early as 2005, BYD built a team to enter the MCU field. In 2009, it launched its first generation of insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology and continued to expand its deployments and deeply cultivate this field. At present, BYD has become the only Chinese car company that has mastered the entire IGBT production chain, covering material research and development, chip design, wafer manufacturing, module design and manufacturing, and vehicle applications.

这主要得益于其强大的自研核心技术。早在2005年,比亚迪就组建团队进入MCU领域,2009年推出第一代IGBT技术,并持续布局深耕。目前,比亚迪成为我国唯一掌握了材料研发、芯片设计、晶圆制造、模块设计与制造以及整车应用的IGBT全产业链的车企。

“Addressing shortcomings and enhancing our independence and ability to control [technology] is the primary task in raising the level of production chain and supply chain modernization,” said Xu Zhaoyuan. In particular, if the production chains and supply chains for important products cannot be autonomously controlled, once they are placed in a “stranglehold,” this can “suffocate” the entire national economy.

“补齐短板,增强自主可控能力是提升产业链供应链现代化水平的首要任务。”许召元说,特别是重要产品的产业链供应链如不能自主可控,一旦被“卡脖子”,可以会导致整个国民经济“窒息”。

“The pain of the ‘stranglehold’ is felt in industry, but it is rooted at the very foundation,” said Huang Qunhui, director of the Institute of Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. The greatest shortcomings faced in the modernization of Chinese production chains are the weak industrial foundation and the low capabilities of the industrial foundation.

“‘卡脖子’痛,痛在产业,根在基础。”中国社会科学院经济研究所所长黄群慧谈到,我国产业链现代化面临的最大短板,就是产业基础薄弱、产业基础能力低。

Taking the “Four Bases of Industry” as an example, in the field of advanced manufacturing, from 2016 to 2020, China expects to make industrial base breakthroughs in 287 core basic parts, 268 key basic raw materials, 81 advanced basic processes, and 46 industrial technical foundations, for 682 items in total.

以“工业四基”为例,在先进制造业领域我国期望在2016年到2020年有所突破的产业基础就有287项核心基础零部件(元器件)、268项关键基础原材料、81项先进基础工艺、46项行业技术基础,合计高达682项。

“The industrial infrastructure reengineering project is the core battlefield for China’s attempts to raise the level of industrial chain and supply chain modernization.” Xu Zhaoyuan believes that three aspects must be properly grasped in this process, namely, viewing enterprises as the mainstays, application-driven, and the new structure for leveraging national capabilities.

“产业基础再造工程是我国增强产业链供应链现代化水平的核心战场。”许召元认为,这一过程要把握好三个方面,即以企业为主体、应用牵引和新型举国体制。

He believes that, first, industrial infrastructure reengineering is not a matter of major theoretical innovation or scientific research, but more of technological breakthroughs. Enterprises are the mainstays of technology application and innovation. Therefore, various policies must support and facilitate enterprises’ leveraging of their capabilities and enthusiasm to enhance the industrial infrastructure and stimulate enterprises to play their leading roles.

他认为,首先,产业基础再造不是重大理论创新、不是科学攻关,更多是技术突破,而企业是技术应用和创新的主体,因此各种政策必须坚持有利于发挥企业提升产业基础的能力和积极性,激发企业的主体作用。

Second, breakthroughs and improvements in industrial infrastructure capabilities require products to have practical application opportunities. Applications allow us to continuously discover problems and iteratively improve products. We must adhere to an application-driven approach rather than “prototype engineering” (样品工程).

其次,产业基础能力的突破和提升,需要产品有实际应用的机会,在应用中不断发现问题、迭代提升,必须始终坚持应用牵引,不能是“样品工程”。

Finally, the industrial infrastructure must be reengineered in accordance with the current reality of the dispersed layout of R&D and innovation forces in China. We must conscientiously use policy to guide and gather relevant R&D forces to key enterprises so as to give full play to the combined innovative forces of all parties. Otherwise, we can only rely on market forces and the resources of enterprises themselves. This will make it difficult to achieve the goal of industrial infrastructure reengineering in the short term.

最后,产业基础再造还要根据当前我国研发创新力量较为分散的现实,有意识地通过政策牵引,将相关研发力量向重点企业引导和聚集,发挥各方的创新合力,否则单纯依靠市场力量、依靠企业自身的资源,短期内很难实现产业基础再造的目标。

Solidifying Advantages: Forming Advantages and Clenched Fists

锻长板:形成优势与拳头

Another important initiative to improve the modernization of the national production chains and supply chains is to promote the extension of production chains and supply chains to high value-added stages.

提升国家产业链供应链现代化水平的另一个重要方向,是推进产业链供应链向高附加值环节延伸。

There are two paths. The first is to promote the in-depth integrated development of informatization and industrialization.

路径有二。其一,推进“两化”深度融合发展。

Tongyi Ceramics is a leading enterprise in the ceramic industry in Zibo, Shandong. It previously faced the common problems in the industry such as high energy consumption, heavy pollution, and serious low-quality competition. Targeting enterprise pain points, Haier Kaos launched an industrial internet sub-platform for the ceramics industry. One end connects with ceramics users and the other connects with upstream and downstream resources in the ceramics industry to promote the transformation of enterprises to large-scale personalized customization. Empowered by this platform, Tongyi Ceramics’ revenue increased by 30 percent, profits increased by 32 percent, efficiency increased by 35 percent, and inventory decreased by 30 percent.

统一陶瓷是山东淄博建陶行业龙头企业,一度面临着能耗高、污染重、低质化竞争严重等行业通病。针对企业痛点,海尔卡奥斯上线建陶行业的工业互联网子平台,一端连接建陶用户,一端连接建陶行业上下游各资源方,推动企业向大规模个性化定制转型。通过平台赋能,统一陶瓷收入提升30%,利润提高32%,效率增长35%,库存下降30%。

Making full use of industrial internet, 5G, AI, and other new technology development platforms and achievements and accelerating the promotion of digitized and intelligentized upgrades are important means to raise the level of industrial chain and supply chain modernization. These are also important ways to give play to China’s latecomer advantages.

充分利用工业互联网、5G、人工智能等新技术发展平台与成果,加快推进数字化智能化升级是提升产业链供应链现代化水平的重要手段,也是发挥我国后发优势的重要途径。

According to data from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, China has established more than 70 industrial internet platforms with strong industry and regional influence and has connected 40 million pieces of industrial equipment.

根据工信部数据,目前中国已建成具有较强行业和区域影响力的工业互联网平台超70个,连接工业设备数量达4000万台(套)。

“Many Chinese companies have experience in the development of smart manufacturing, industrial internet, and cloud-based platforms, but they are currently facing two main contradictions,” said Xu Zhaoyuan. First, the technology is still immature, and the digitized and intelligentized transformations of enterprises often require One Enterprise, One Policy. As a result, service companies still have insufficient capabilities to help enterprises in their intelligentized transformations. Second, there is a contradiction between the enterprises’ transformation and upgrade needs and their capabilities. Many enterprises, especially industrial enterprises, have weak profitability, so it is difficult to provide sufficient funds and resources for transformations and upgrades. In these two areas, policy support needs to be brought into full play.

“我国不少企业在发展智能制造、工业互联网、上云上平台等方面具有和全球同步甚至领先的经验,但目前仍面临两个主要矛盾。”许召元谈到,一是技术仍然不够成熟,企业的数字化智能化改造往往需要一企一策,而我国帮助企业进行智能化改造的服务企业的能力仍然不足。二是企业的改造升级需求和企业能力存在矛盾,不少企业,特别是工业企业盈利能力薄弱,难以提供足够资金和资源用于改造升级。在这两方面,需要更好发挥政策支持作用。

The second path is to develop strategic emerging industries.

其二,发展战略性新兴产业。

Recent history shows that every technological breakthrough in the world will give birth to a large number of emerging industries and form new economic growth points. A country will win in the new round of competition mainly when it has fully explored and brought to bear the role of emerging technologies and cultivated and developed strategic emerging industries.

近现代史表明,全球每一次科技突破均会催生大量新兴产业,形成新的经济增长点。一个国家能在新一轮竞争中胜出,多是因为充分挖掘和发挥了新兴技术的作用,培育和发展了战略性新兴产业。

The Proposals propose that “we will accelerate and expand industries such as new-generation information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles and green and environmentally friendly products, and the aerospace and marine equipment industries.” It points out the directions and key areas for the development and expansion of strategic emerging industries during the 14th Five-Year Plan period.

《建议》提出“加快壮大新一代信息技术、生物技术、新能源、新材料、高端装备、新能源汽车、绿色环保以及航空航天、海洋装备等产业”,指明了“十四五”时期发展壮大战略性新兴产业的方向和重点领域。

Wei Jigang, a researcher at the Industrial Economic Research Department of the Development Research Center of the State Council, said that many of the above-mentioned strategic emerging industries require a large number of new technologies that are still in their early stages. In many fields, China is “almost on the same starting line” as foreign countries. If China can build a new technological system at a faster speed, overtake at the turns, and achieve leapfrog development, it will be able to break out of the strategic containment and blockade of advanced technology that some countries have imposed on China and achieve the goal of catching up with developed countries. “Therefore, for the immediate future, accelerating the development of strategic emerging industries is of particularly important significance.”

国务院发展研究中心产业经济研究部研究员魏际刚谈到,上述不少战略性新兴产业所需大量新技术尚处于初期阶段,许多领域同国外“几乎处于同一起跑线上”。如果我国能够以更快速度构筑新技术体系,弯道超车、跨越发展,就能打破一些国家对我国高科技的战略遏制与封锁,实现对发达国家的追赶目标。“因此今后一段时期,加速发展战略性新兴产业,具有特别重要的意义。”

In 2019, the added value of China’s strategic emerging industries accounted for 11.5 percent of GDP. Industry forecasts predict that this proportion will reach about 20 percent in the next five years.

2019年,我国战略性新兴产业增加值占GDP比重为11.5%。业内预计,未来五年,这一比重将达到20%左右。

The strategic emerging industry market has huge potential, but it also faces significant risks. Compared with mature traditional industries, the technological route is uncertain; the social and economic environment and infrastructure suitable for industrial development and product application are not perfect; and there is a high demand for talents, data, and other elements.

战略性新兴产业市场潜力巨大,但同时也面临较大风险。相对于成熟的传统产业,技术路线具有不确定性,适合产业发展和产品应用的社会经济环境和基础设施并不完善,对人才、数据等要素需求较高。

Xu Zhaoyuan told our reporter that in recent years, China’s strategic emerging industries have achieved remarkable results and accumulated a lot of experience, but there were also some lessons learned. To further promote the development of the industry in the future: First, we must do a good job with regard to prudent and inclusive supervision. During the development of strategic emerging industries, supervision should not be too strict at the beginning, leaving room for exploration, refinement, improvement, and even trial and error in the development of the industry. Second, we must wisely concentrate government support to prevent the development of strategic emerging industries from rushing forward with the result of low-level redundant construction and to prevent moral hazards such as exploiting policy loopholes and cheating. Third, we must improve the level of supervision. Supervisory departments must have strong summary, research, and prediction capabilities, and we must improve policies in a timely manner to provide ongoing support for the development of the industry.

许召元告诉本刊记者,近年来我国战略性新兴产业发展成果显著,积累了很多经验,但也有一些教训。未来进一步促进产业发展,一是做好审慎包容监管,在战略性新兴产业发展时不能一开始监管过于严格,给产业发展留下探索、完善、改进甚至试错的空间;二是有智慧地集中政府支持力量,防止战略性新兴产业发展一哄而上,低水平重复建设,还要防止钻政策漏洞、骗补等道德风险;三是提高监管水平,监管部门要有较强的总结、研究和预判的能力,及时完善政策,为产业发展保驾护航。

Strengthen the Domestic Market

做强国内市场

The Chinese market is already very large. In terms of consumption, despite the decline due to the impact of the pandemic, total retail sales of consumer goods in 2020 still reached 39.19 trillion yuan. In terms of investment, in 2020, national investment in fixed assets will be 51.89 trillion yuan. In terms of market players, at the end of 2020, China had about 125 million market players of various types. In terms of import scale, in 2020, China’s imports in the goods trade were valued at 14.23 trillion yuan.

中国的市场规模已经很大。从消费看,尽管由于受疫情影响有所下降,但2020年,社会消费品零售总额依然高达39.19万亿元。从投资看,2020年,全国固定资产投资51.89万亿元。从市场主体看,2020年底,我国实有各类市场主体约1.25亿户。从进口规模看,2020年,我国货物贸易进口14.23万亿元。

Its ultra-large market is the source of China’s development potential and advantages. In the context of profound changes in the external development environment, China’s development must transition to a greater reliance on its internal market. It is neither safe nor realistic for a big country like China to mainly look to external markets for its own development.

超大规模市场是中国发展的巨大潜力和优势所在,在外部发展环境发生深刻变革的背景下,中国的发展必须更多转向依赖内部。像中国这样的大国,将自身发展主要寄希望于外部,既不安全,也不现实。

Break Obstructions and Facilitate Smooth Circulation

打破梗阻 畅通循环

At present, what is the main obstacle to the full release of the potential of China’s ultra-large-scale market? In two words: poor circulation.

当下,影响中国超大规模市场潜力充分释放的最大阻碍是什么?答案是四个字:循环不畅。

“Just as the unobstructed circulation of qi and blood determines a person’s health and longevity, economic circulation usually determine the health and development capacity of an economy,” said Han Baojiang. Compared with the super-strong domestic demand and the super-large domestic market that we must bring together to give people a higher standard of living, there are various structural “supply and demand obstructions” in the economic system that seriously affect the smooth circulation of China’s economy. This in turn compromises China’s economic efficiency and exhausts the momentum of economic development.

“正像气血通畅决定人的健康和寿命一样,经济循环通常决定着经济的健康和发展能力。”韩保江表示,与人民美好生活需要汇集而成的超强国内需求和超大国内市场相比,经济体系中存在的各种结构性“供需梗阻”,严重影响中国经济的循环畅通,进而损害中国经济效率,衰竭经济发展动力。

To prescribe the right medicine, we must first clarify the “breakpoints” and “blockage points” that hinder the smooth circulation (循环) of production, distribution, circulation (流通), and consumption and their reasons.

对症下药,首先要厘清阻碍生产、分配、流通、消费之间畅通循环的“断点”“堵点”及其原因。

Zhang Zhanbin, director of the School of Marxism Studies of the Central Party School (National Academy of Governance), clarified these points one by one.

中央党校(国家行政学院)马克思主义学院院长张占斌对此一一进行了梳理:

The main pain points and blockage points in the production stage are the insufficient supply of technology and the restrictions in some high-tech fields imposed by others.

生产环节的痛点、堵点主要是技术供给不足,部分高科技领域受制于人。

The main blockage point in the distribution stage is the income of residents. On the one hand, residents’ income as a proportion of GDP is relatively low, which will reduce overall demand to a certain extent, thereby affecting overall supply. On the other hand, the income distribution gap is relatively large, resulting in an obviously dual structure in the economy and an excessively large gap between urban and rural areas.

分配环节的堵点主要是居民收入,一方面,居民收入占GDP的比重较低,一定程度上会拉低总需求,进而影响总供给。另一方面,收入分配差距较大,造成经济二元结构突出,城乡之间差距过大。

The blockage points in the circulation stage are mainly due to the poor circulation of capital, land, talents, technology, information, data, and other factors in the market. In addition, logistics costs are too high.

流通环节的堵点主要是资本、土地、人才、技术、信息、数据等要素在市场上流通不畅。此外,物流成本过高。

One of the major blockage points in the consumption stage is the phenomenon of “losing reality and becoming virtual” (脱实向虚) in economic operations. A large amount of funds sit idle in the real estate and financial fields. This has not only led to the long-term lack of vitality in the real economy, but it has also pushed up housing prices, which is not conducive to the growth of overall social demand.

消费环节的一大堵点,是经济运行存在“脱实向虚”的现象,有大量资金在房地产、金融领域空转。不仅导致实体经济长时间缺血,而且还推高房价,不利于社会总需求的增长。

Now that the disease is identified, we can prescribe a cure: continuously deepen the supply-side structural reforms focusing on smooth circulation in the national economy.

找准病灶,即可开出药方——围绕畅通国民经济循环,不断深化供给侧结构性改革。

“The main direction of attack is to improve the quality of supply, and the fundamental path is by deepening reforms,” Han Baojiang analyzed. The main direction of attack is to improve the quality of supply. This means that we must follow the requirements of the five new development concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness, and sharing; continuously consolidate the results of the “Three Eliminations, One Reduction, and One Supplement” (三去一降一补); minimize ineffective supply and maximize effective supply; focus on improving the quality of the entire supply system; and improve the adaptability of the supply structure to the demand structure.

“主攻方向是提高供给质量,根本途径是深化改革。”韩保江分析谈到,讲主攻方向是提高供给质量,就是要按照创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享五大新发展理念要求,不断巩固“三去一降一补”成果,最大限度地减少无效供给,扩大有效供给,着力提高整个供给体系质量,提高供给结构对需求结构的适应性。

The fundamental path is to deepen reforms. This means that we must improve the institutions and mechanisms through which the market plays its decisive role in the allocation of resources, focus on the reform of the property rights system and the reform of the marketization of factors, improve the business environment, improve the market system, increase the efficiency of resource allocation, and continue to strengthen the internal motivation of micro-entities.

讲根本途径是深化改革,就是要完善市场在资源配置中起决定性作用的体制机制,以产权制度改革和要素市场化改革为重点,改善营商环境,完善市场体系,提高资源配置效率,不断增强微观主体内生动力。

“It is necessary to effectively resolve the structural imbalance arising from ‘losing reality and becoming virtual’ and facilitate the circulation between finance and the real economy,” reminded Huang Qunhui. The executive meeting of the State Council in June last year proposed that 1.5 trillion yuan in financial support should be given to the real economy. Practical implementation mechanisms and specific measures must be adopted to implement this.

“要切实解决‘脱实向虚’的结构失衡,畅通金融和实体经济之间的循环。”黄群慧提醒,去年6月国务院常务会议提出金融支持实体经济让利1.5万亿元,需要采取切实可行的实施机制和具体措施加以落实。

Break Down Barriers and Stimulate Consumption

破除障碍 刺激消费

In 2020, end-consumer expenditures as a proportion of GDP reached 54.3 percent, 11.2 percentage points higher than the capital formation total and also higher than the average consumption rate of 53.4 percent from 2011 to 2019. This is the highest level in recent years.

2020年,最终消费支出占我国GDP的比重(消费率)达到54.3%,高于资本形成总额11.2个百分点,也高于2011~2019年53.4%的平均消费率,为近年来的最高水平。

Consumption has been the primary driving force of China’s economic growth for many years. However, since 2015, China’s consumption growth rate has continuously slowed down.

消费已连续多年成为我国经济增长的第一拉动力,但自2015以来,我国消费增速却持续放缓。

In terms of consumption rate, the level of 54.3 percent is far lower than the 80 percent in developed countries. The low consumption rate means that the share of consumption in the economy is relatively low. This indicates that consumption still has great potential for driving economic growth.

从消费率看,54.3%的水平远低于发达国家的80%以上。消费率较低,意味着消费在经济中的占比较低,说明消费对经济增长的带动作用还有很大潜力。

How can we turn this potential into a reality? According to experts, we must, first, steadily increase residents’ willingness and ability to consume by stably promoting employment, improving social security, increasing transfer payments, and optimizing the income distribution structure.

如何将潜力变成现实?专家们表示,一是通过稳定促进就业、完善社保、加大转移性支付、优化收入分配结构等,稳步提升居民消费意愿和能力。

Second, we must establish a strict supervision system; refine relevant laws, regulations, and institutions; optimize the product and service quality supervision system; effectively prohibit and crack down on intellectual property right infringement and the production and sale of counterfeit and shoddy goods; and protect the rights and interests of consumers.

二是建立严格的监管体系,完善相关法律法规和制度,优化产品和服务质量监管体系,有效制止和打击侵犯知识产权和制售假冒伪劣商品的行为,保障消费者权益。

Third, we must cultivate new types of consumption. During the epidemic prevention and control period, new online consumption methods such as live streaming product placement, online group buying, cloud travel, and telemedicine continued to emerge, which offset the lack of offline consumption to a certain extent and showed strong vitality.

三是培育新型消费。疫情防控期间,直播带货、线上团购、云旅游、远程医疗等线上新型消费方式不断涌现,在一定程度上弥补了线下消费的不足,也展现出强大的生命力。

Experts recommend that we should take advantage of this trend and vigorously promote the integration of online and offline consumption; support the consumption upgrade of services such as elderly care, health, housekeeping, cultural tourism, and education; actively develop new information products such as high-end mobile communication terminals and wearable devices; promote the update and upgrade of information consumption; and foster the development of new products, new business models, and new modes such as green consumption and smart consumption.

专家建议,要顺势而为,大力推动线上线下消费融合,支持养老、健康、家政、文旅、教育等服务消费提档升级,积极发展中高端移动通讯终端,可穿戴设备等新型信息产品,促进信息消费更新升级,培育发展绿色消费、智能消费等新产品新业态新模式。

Precisely Implement Policies and Expand Investment

精准施策 扩大投资

Investment has always been an important driving force supporting China’s economic progress. During interviews, experts mentioned that the key to expanding investment space in the future lies in the word “effective.” The critical thing is to solve two major problems.

投资一直是支撑中国经济前进的重要动力。采访中,专家们提到,未来拓展投资空间,重在“有效”二字,关键要解决好两大问题。

First, we must accurately select areas for investment. Although investment can promote economic growth, improper control can also lead to overcapacity and wasted resources. Therefore, we must properly select areas and projects for investment.

其一,选准投资领域。投资虽能推动经济增长,但把握不当,也会导致产能过剩和资源浪费。因此,应善于选择投资领域和项目。

“Under the requirements of building a new development pattern, this year China will focus on improving the quality of the supply system, effectively strengthen demand-side management, firmly grasp the strategic basis of expanding domestic demand, and accelerate the cultivation of a complete domestic demand system,” Ning Jizhe, deputy chairman of the National Development and Reform Commission, said earlier. In fact, he pointed out the direction for expanding effective investment.

“在构建新发展格局的要求下,今年我国将着力提升供给体系质量,切实加强需求侧管理,牢牢把握扩大内需这个战略基点,加快培育完整内需体系。”国家发展改革委副主任宁吉喆此前的一番表示,事实上为扩大有效投资指明了方向。

In terms of improving the quality of the supply system, China will use the construction of an innovation system as its starting point. A number of major projects will be initiated in areas such as the creation of independent and secure production chains and supply chains, research on key and core technologies; the development of national strategic emerging industrial clusters; and food security, modern seed industry improvement, and black soil protection. These efforts aim to solve a batch of “stranglehold” problems as quickly as possible.

在着力提升供给体系质量方面,我国将从构建创新体系入手,在自主安全产业链供应链打造、关键核心技术攻关、国家战略性新兴产业集群发展以及粮食安全、现代种业提升、黑土地保护等领域启动一批重大项目建设,以尽快解决一批“卡脖子”问题。

In terms of effectively strengthening demand-side management, China will focus on tapping emerging consumption potential, expand effective investment with a focus on the “Two News and One Major” areas, systematically deploy new infrastructure, comprehensively promote the transformation of old urban communities, accelerate the construction of major transportation projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet railway and new land-sea corridors in the west, implement national water network backbone projects, and accelerate the construction of major water diversion projects across river basins and regions.

在切实加强需求侧管理方面,我国将着力挖掘新兴消费潜力,围绕“两新一重”扩大有效投资,系统布局新型基础设施,全面推进城镇老旧小区改造,加快川藏铁路、西部陆海新通道等重大交通项目建设,实施国家水网骨干工程,加快推进跨流域跨区域重大引水调水等多项重大水利工程建设。

Second, we must innovate in investment methods.

其二,创新投资方式。

“We must promote the innovation of investment and financing models for major projects, attract more private capital to participate in the construction of projects in key areas, and promote the formation of a combined force of the government and the market,” said Wu Yaping, a researcher at the Investment Research Institute of the China Academy of Macroeconomic Research. We must make good use of national policy tools such as PPP, government special bonds, corporate bonds, and real estate investment trust funds (REITs) in the infrastructure sector to continuously improve investment and financing institutions and mechanisms, promote the diversification of investment and financing methods, and accelerate the implementation of major projects.

“要推进重大项目投融资模式创新,吸引更多民间资本参与重点领域项目建设,促进形成政府与市场的合力。”中国宏观经济研究院投资研究所研究员吴亚平谈到,要运用好国家有关PPP、政府专项债、企业债券、基础设施领域不动产投资信托基金(REITs)等政策工具,不断健全投融资体制机制,促进投融资方式多样化,加快重大项目落地实施。

Reshape External Circulation

重塑外部循环

On February 15, trade data published by Eurostat showed that China will surpass the United States for the first time in 2020 and become the European Union’s largest trading partner. In 2020, despite the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, the pace of China-EU cooperation has continued to accelerate: the number of China-Europe express trains reached a new high, with 12,406 trains operating throughout the year, an increase of 50 percent year-on-year; China and Europe formally signed the EU-China Geographical Indications Agreement; and the China-EU investment agreement negotiations were completed as scheduled.

2月15日,欧盟统计局发布的贸易数据显示,中国在2020年首次超越美国,成为欧盟最大贸易伙伴。2020年,尽管遭受新冠肺炎疫情冲击,但中欧合作的脚步却不断加快:中欧班列开行数量创新高,全年开行12406列,同比增长50%;中欧正式签署《中欧地理标志协定》;如期完成中欧投资协定谈判……

“China-EU trade has bucked the trend in this special period, further demonstrating that only open cooperation can achieve mutually beneficial results,” was the evaluation of certain analysts.

“中欧贸易在特殊时期逆势上扬,进一步彰显只有开放合作才能实现互利共赢。”有分析如此评价。

The new development pattern being constructed is by no means a closed domestic loop, but an open dual circulation system that involves both the domestic and foreign markets. As Zheng Yongnian, director of the Advanced Institute of Global and Contemporary China Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (Shenzhen), said, on the one hand, since reform and opening up, China’s development has been achieved under the conditions of economic globalization and international great circulation (国际大循环). The Chinese economy has been deeply integrated into the world economy. Even if it turns to domestic great circulation (国内大循环), it will not be separated from international great circulation. On the other hand, in terms of international relations, to provide more products to the international public also requires China to both continue to join international great circulation and further promote international great circulation.

构建新发展格局,决不是封闭的国内循环,而是开放的国内国际双循环。正如香港中文大学(深圳)全球与当代中国高等研究院院长郑永年分析所言,一方面,改革开放以来,中国发展是在经济全球化和国际大循环条件下实现的,中国经济已经深度融入世界经济,即使转向国内大循环,也不会脱离国际大循环。另一方面,从国际关系来说,提供更多国际公共产品,也要求中国不仅要继续加入国际大循环,而且还要进一步推动国际大循环。

However, for China, the connotation of external circulation has changed.

但对中国而言,外循环的内涵却变了。

“If we say that China has been taking the path of ‘using external circulation to drive internal circulation’ for many years, then in the future, we must build a path of ‘viewing domestic circulation as the mainstay and domestic and international dual circulation [as a system of] mutual promotion.’ The main idea is to use internal circulation to drive external circulation,” said Zhang Ming, director of the International Investment Research Office of the Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

“如果说中国过去多年走的是‘以外循环带动内循环’的道路,那未来要构建‘以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进’的道路,要义就是以内循环带动外循环。”中国社会科学院世界经济与政治研究所国际投资研究室主任张明表示。

China’s status and contributions as the factory of the world have long been seen widely. As the domestic demand market releases more and more dividends, China’s huge population, production capacity, and consumer demand will give China a unique place in the world for the foreseeable future—both as the factory of the world and the market of the world.

中国的“世界工厂”地位和贡献早已有目共睹,而随着内需市场释放出越来越多的红利,在可预见的未来,凭借着巨大的人口规模、生产能力和消费需求,中国将成为全球独一无二的存在——既是世界工厂,也是世界市场。

With the simultaneous progress of stabilizing exports and expanding imports, the industrial upgrade and the consumption upgrade, “Made in China” and “Made for China,” and “sell to the world” and “buy from the world,” China’s reshaping of the global economic structure and its creation of an external circulation system centered on itself is a matter of course.

当稳定出口和扩大进口、产业升级与消费升级、“在中国制造”和“为中国制造”、“卖全球”和“买全球”同步发生,中国重塑全球经济格局、打造以自身为中心的外部循环似乎水到渠成。

Build the Chinese Market into the Market of the World

将中国市场打造成世界市场

Let us turn back the clock to last year’s Third China International Import Expo (CIIE). Despite the impact of the pandemic, the charm of the Chinese market had not diminished in the slightest. On a one-year basis, the accumulated intended transaction value of this CIIE reached $72.62 billion, a new high.

将时间回拨至去年的第三届中国国际进口博览会。虽然遭受疫情冲击,中国市场的魅力丝毫未减。按一年计,此届进博会累计意向成交金额726.2亿美元,再创新高。

Many manufacturers from different countries expressed the same view—the new development pattern that China is building will promote the continuous expansion of the domestic consumption market and bring massive business opportunities to countries around the world.

不少来自不同国家的厂商都表达了同样的观点——中国正在构建的新发展格局,将促进国内消费市场规模持续扩大,给世界各国带来巨大商机。

From continuously lowering the overall tariff level to continuously improving trade facilitation, from expanding import markets to expanding import product categories—in recent years, China has taken frequent actions to proactively expand imports. In November last year, nine departments, including the Ministry of Commerce, made a joint decision to establish 10 import trade promotion innovation demonstration zones across the country. It is hoped that in three to five years we will cultivate a number of import demonstration zones with innovative regulatory systems, complete service functions, and flexible trading models to promote the steady expansion of China’s import scale and continuous structural optimization.

从不断降低关税总水平到持续提升贸易便利化,从拓展进口市场到扩大进口品类……近年来,中国在积极主动扩大进口方面动作频频。去年11月,商务部等9部门又共同作出决定,在全国设立10个进口贸易促进创新示范区,希望用三至五年时间,培育一批监管制度创新、服务功能齐全、交易模式灵活的进口示范区,推动中国进口规模稳步扩大、结构不断优化。

During interviews, experts said that actively expanding imports plays an irreplaceable strategic role in building the new development pattern. On the one hand, the active expansion of consumer goods imports is conducive to stimulating consumption potential and vitality, thereby accelerating and promoting the formation of a strong domestic market. On the other hand, actively expanding imports will facilitate the better utilization of the domestic and international markets and their two types of resources, thereby promoting better connectivity and mutual promotion between the domestic and international markets.

采访中,专家们表示,积极扩大进口在构建新发展格局中不可替代的战略性作用。一方面,积极扩大消费品进口有利于激发消费潜力和活力,进而加快促进形成强大的国内市场。另一方面,积极扩大进口有利于更好地利用国内国际两个市场、两种资源,进而推动国内外市场更好地联通和相互促进。

In terms of their impact on countries around the world, following on the heels of “Chinese exports,” “Chinese imports” will become a new driving force for the development of the world economy. Wei Hao, a professor at the School of Economics and Business Administration of Beijing Normal University and director of the National Import Research Center, has calculated that between 2002 and 2007 the average contribution of Chinese imports to world import growth was only 10.7 percent. However, between 2012 and 2017, the average contribution of Chinese imports to world import growth reached 22.5 percent.

从对世界各国的影响来看,在“中国出口”之后,“中国进口”将成为促进世界经济发展的新动力。北京师范大学经济与工商管理学院教授、国家进口研究中心主任魏浩曾做过测算,在2002~2007年期间,中国进口对世界进口增长的平均贡献率仅为10.7%。但在2012~2017年期间,中国进口对世界进口增长的平均贡献率已达22.5%。

In terms of development trends, a basic judgment is that, with the increase in China’s national income level and the expansion of the scale and scope of the consumption upgrade, the scale of China’s demand for imported products will constantly increase.

从发展趋势看,一个基本判断是,随着中国国民收入水平的提升和消费升级规模、范围的扩大,中国对进口产品的需求规模将日益增多。

Over the next 10 years, China’s cumulative goods imports are expected to exceed $22 trillion. With a vast domestic demand market stimulating a steady stream of surging power, the Chinese market is gradually becoming the market of the world. In the context of the long-term impact of the pandemic, this change is of great significance to the global economy.

未来10年,预计中国累计商品进口额超过22万亿美元。随着广阔的内需市场激发出源源不断的澎湃力量,“中国市场”正一步步成为“世界市场”。 在疫情冲击长期持续的大背景下,这一变化对全球经济具有重要意义。

Leverage Institutional Innovation to Build a New Pattern Open to the Outside

以制度创新构建对外开放新格局

A pilot free trade zone is a comprehensive pilot area that explores new paths and accumulates new experience in order to comprehensively deepen reform and further expand opening up. Since the establishment of China’s first free trade pilot zone—the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone—in 2013, it has undergone six expansions over seven years. Today, there are 21 pilot free trade zones in China, forming a new pattern of “coastal areas and inland connections.”

自贸试验区是为全面深化改革和进一步扩大开放探索新路径、积累新经验的综合性试验区域。自2013年中国首个自由贸易试验区——上海自由贸易试验区设立以来,7年间历经6次扩容,如今中国自贸试验区数量已达21个,形成了“沿海成片、内陆连线”的新格局。

Today’s globalization is the globalization of the division of labor of factors of production. In terms of production, production and product chains have transformed into supply chains and value chains. The production links of products are allocated to different companies in different countries, and production processes require the common, instant, and standardized participation of production factors from multiple countries, requiring highly efficient and seamless connections. This requires countries to achieve compatibility and consistency in terms of domestic economic rules and systems.

如今的全球化,是要素分工的全球化。从生产上看,产业链、产品链转变为供应链、价值链,产品的生产环节分配到了不同国家的不同企业,生产过程需要多国生产要素共同、即时、标准化的参与,需要高效率的无缝对接。这就要求各国在国内经济规则制度上实现兼容和一致。

For China, to create efficient external circulation, the arrangements of the domestic economic system must be coordinated and consistent with internationally accepted rules. This includes the continuous improvement of the foreign capital management system, continuous optimization of the business environment, and promotion of trade and investment liberalization and facilitation.

对中国而言,打造高效的外部循环,须使国内经济制度安排与国际通行规则相协调、相一致,包括持续完善外资管理体制,不断优化营商环境,推动贸易和投资自由化便利化等。

To this end, institutional innovation is the core task of the pilot free trade zones.

而制度创新,正是自贸试验区的核心任务。

They issued the country’s first negative list of foreign investment, established the first “single window” for international trade, created the first free trade account, and took the lead in implementing the “separation of permits from business licenses.” At present, the various pilot free trade zones have formed hundreds of institutional innovation achievements, which have been replicated and promoted throughout the country.

发布全国首张外商投资负面清单,建立首个国际贸易“单一窗口”,创立首个自由贸易账户,率先实现“证照分离”……目前,各自贸试验区累计已形成数百项制度创新成果,向全国复制推广。

In this sense, new high grounds for opening up, such as pilot free trade zones and free trade ports, have already become important test fields for China’s promotion of institutional opening up and advancement of the mutual promotion of internal and external circulation. In the future, China will further give effective play to the leading role of free trade pilot zones and free trade ports; introduce a negative list for the cross-border service trade; continue to expand opening up in the digital economy, the internet, and other fields; carry out reforms and innovations in trade and investment liberalization and facilitation in an in-depth manner; and promote the construction of a new economic system with a greater level of openness.

从此意义而言,自贸试验区、自由贸易港等开放新高地,已经成为中国推进制度型开放、推动内外循环相互促进的重要试验田。未来中国还将进一步有效发挥自由贸易试验区、自由贸易港引领作用,出台跨境服务贸易负面清单,在数字经济、互联网等领域持续扩大开放,深入开展贸易和投资自由化便利化改革创新,推动建设更高水平开放型经济新体制。

Promote High-Quality Development in Belt and Road Co-Construction

推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展

On January 26, the China-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement Upgrade Protocol was formally signed, achieving the further improvement of China-New Zealand free trade relations in terms of quality and efficiency on the basis of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).

1月26日,中国-新西兰自贸协定升级议定书正式签署,实现了中新自贸关系在区域全面经济伙伴关系协定(RCEP)基础上进一步提质增效。

To date, China has signed 205 cooperation documents for Belt and Road co-construction with 171 countries and international organizations. Over the past few years, China has shared the dividends of China’s reform and opening up with co-construction countries by building a Belt and Road cooperation platform. In addition, China has formed relationships of complementary advantages and exchange between those who have and those who lack (互通有无) at the market level.

截至目前,中国已与171个国家和国际组织,签署了205份共建“一带一路”合作文件。在过去几年中,中国通过搭建“一带一路”合作平台与共建国家分享中国改革开放的红利,并在市场层面上形成优势互补、互通有无的关系。

The construction of the Belt and Road focuses on the “Five Connections,” namely, policy communication, facility connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and people-to-people ties. Under the new development pattern, domestic and international dual circulation involves not only the smooth circulation between commodity production, distribution, consumption, and circulation, but also the smooth market-allocated flow and circulation of factors of production and resources.

“一带一路”建设,重点在“五通”,即政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通。在新发展格局下,国内国际双循环既涉及到商品的生产、分配、消费、流通之间的循环通畅,也涉及到要素资源的市场化配置流动、循环畅通。

Therefore, promoting the high-quality development of Belt and Road co-construction is also an important means by which China can reshape external circulation.

因此,推动共建“一带一路”高质量发展,也是中国重塑外部循环的重要途径。

During an interview, Jia Jinjing, assistant dean of the Chongyang Institute of Financial Studies of Renmin University of China, said that since the proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative, as the cooperation pattern of “six corridors, six roads, many countries, and many ports” (六廊六路多国多港) has basically taken shape, the framework of the Belt and Road has been completed. Further promoting the high-quality development of Belt and Road construction can mainly focus on four levels.

采访中,中国人民大学重阳金融研究院助理院长贾晋京谈到,“一带一路”倡议提出以来,随着“六廊六路多国多港”的合作格局基本成型,“一带一路”骨架已经建成,进一步推动“一带一路”建设高质量发展可主要着眼于四个层次:

First, improve project development mechanisms. On the one hand, we must attach importance to the compliance management of Chinese companies overseas, while on the other hand we must strictly guard against overseas compliance risks.

首先,完善项目发展机制。一方面要重视中国企业在海外的合规管理,另一方面是严防海外合规风险。

Second, improve financing mechanisms. In terms of the sources of funds, while making good use of domestic funds, we must strengthen the use of international funds; in terms of the nature of funds, while making good use of government funds, we must strengthen the participation of social capital; in terms of financing structure, while making good use of indirect financing, we must strengthen direct financing inputs; in terms of financing currencies, while making good use of foreign currency financing, we must strengthen the development of local currency financing; in terms of financial technology, we must give play to the important role of financial technology in promoting the transformation of the financial industries of countries along the route.

其次,健全融资机制。资金来源方面,用好国内资金的同时加强国际资金利用;资金性质方面,用好政府资金的同时加强社会资本参与;融资结构方面,用好间接融资的同时加强直接融资投入;融资币种方面,用好外币融资的同时加强本币融资发展;金融科技方面,发挥金融科技在推动沿线国家金融产业转型中的重要作用。

Third, build dispute resolution mechanisms. On the basis of existing dispute settlement mechanisms, we must make flexible use of various methods such as politics and law to construct dispute settlement mechanisms with regional characteristics and implement a dispute settlement model of “promoting regulation through development” or “both development and regulation.”

再次,构建纠纷解决机制。在现有争端解决机制基础上灵活运用政治、法律等多种手段,构建具有区域特色的争端解决机制,推行“以发展促规则”或“边发展边规则”的争端解决模式。

Finally, strengthen risk management mechanisms. First, we must improve the construction of export credit and insurance laws and regulations and encourage innovation in the credit and insurance businesses of countries along the route. Second, we must improve the construction of overseas investment laws and regulations and improve the ability to recover export credit insurance overseas investment insurance (出口信保海外投资险). Third, we must increase the level of national fiscal support and increase the business level of insurance agencies in their underwriting of countries along the Belt and Road.

最后,强化风险管理机制。第一,完善出口信用保险法规建设,鼓励对沿线国家信保业务创新;第二,完善海外投资法规建设,提高出口信保海外投资险的追偿能力;第三,加大国家财政支持力度,提高保险机构承保“一带一路”沿线国家业务水平。

Accelerate the Promotion of New Breakthroughs in Regional Economic Cooperation

加快推动区域经济合作新突破

On November 15, 2020, RCEP, covering 15 member states, was officially signed. The content of the agreement covers many aspects such as trade in goods, trade in services, investment, trade facilitation, e-commerce, competition policy, and dispute settlement.

2020年11月15日,涵盖15个成员国的RCEP正式签署。协定内容涵盖货物贸易、服务贸易、投资、贸易便利化、电子商务、竞争政策和争端解决等多方面内容。

The signing of RCEP marked the official birth of the world’s largest free trade zone and a new state for the regional economic integration of East Asia. It also demonstrates China’s confidence and determination to implement high-level opening up.

RCEP的签署意味着全球最大自贸区正式诞生,东亚区域经济一体化也将进入新阶段,同时也展现了中国实行高水平开放的信心和决心。

Some analysts believe that signing RCEP under the prevailing trend of global trade protectionism is of great strategic significance: First, it will strongly promote the process of economic globalization, helping reduce and eliminate trade barriers and promote market opening in particular. Second, it will help reduce production costs and resolve trade disputes and promote the development of the global economy in a balanced and fair direction. Third, it will promote the conclusion of a China-Japan-Korea free trade agreement.

有分析认为,在全球贸易保护主义盛行的形势下签署RCEP,具有重大战略意义:一是将有力促进经济全球化进程,特别是有利于减少和消除贸易壁垒,有利于促进市场开放;二是有利于降低生产成本及解决贸易争端,促进全球经济向均衡和公平的方向发展;三是将促进达成中日韩自贸协定。

“RCEP provides a massive institutional cooperation platform for the new development pattern of ‘dual circulation,’ allowing us to gradually break down obstacles and barriers to external markets in this process,” said Zhang Jianping, director of the Research Center for Regional Economic Cooperation of the Ministry of Commerce. In addition, RCEP also plays a very important driving role in “dual circulation,” including talents, resources, energy, and capital, which can be more efficiently allocated throughout the large market.

“RCEP给‘双循环’新发展格局提供了一个巨大的机制性合作平台,让我们在这个过程中逐渐破除外部市场的障碍和壁垒。”商务部研究院区域经济合作研究中心主任张建平谈到,此外,RCEP还对“双循环”起到非常重要的牵引作用,包括人才、资源、能源、资本等,能够在整个大市场中得到更加高效的配置。

In the context of challenges facing the system of multilateral trade, regional economic cooperation similar to RCEP has become an important way for China to link to external economic circulation. Since the signing of RCEP, China has signed 19 free trade agreements, reaching 26 free trade partners. Accelerating the promotion of new breakthroughs in regional economic cooperation will help our country use more comprehensive, deeper, and more diversified opening up to further optimize the layout of foreign trade and investment, continuously keep in line with international high-standard trade and investment rules, and build a new economic system with a greater level of openness.

在多边贸易体系面临挑战的背景下,类似于RCEP这样的区域经济合作已成为中国链接外部经济循环的重要方式。RCEP签署后,我国对外签署的自贸协定达到19个,自贸伙伴达到26个。加快推动区域经济合作有新突破,将有助于我国通过更全面、更深入、更多元的对外开放,进一步优化对外贸易和投资布局,不断与国际高标准贸易投资规则接轨,构建更高水平的开放型经济新体制。

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尚前名 (Shang Qianming) (2023). "How Should China Build a Modernized Superpower? [建设现代化强国,中国应该怎么做?]". Interpret: China, Original work published March 1, 2021, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/how-should-china-build-a-modernized-superpower/

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