国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题
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Major Issues Concerning China’s Strategies for Mid-to-Long-Term Economic and Social Development

国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题

An important speech by Xi Jinping outlining China’s goals and strategy to ensure technological dominance and self-sufficiency.


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This is the speech by General Secretary Xi Jinping at the seventh meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Affairs Commission on April 10, 2020. Since the start of the COVID-19 outbreak, I have presided over many meanings and given a lot of instructions to promote the proper handling of epidemic control and economic and social development work. At the same time, I have also factored epidemic prevention and control into my reflections on the major issues involving the nation’s medium- and long-term economic and social development. 

新冠肺炎疫情发生以来,我多次主持召开会议、作出大量指示批示,推动做好疫情防控和经济社会发展工作。同时,我也结合疫情防控对涉及国家中长期经济社会发展的重大问题进行了思考。

The world today is going through once-in-a-century changes, and this pandemic is also something encountered once in a century. It is both a crisis and a major test. At present, China’s epidemic prevention and control situation has already turned the corner, but the global pandemic is still growing, and the external situation is very grave. We must do well at externally preventing it from entering and internally preventing it from rebounding, never allowing it to make a comeback. At the same time, we must apply what we know, do longer-term thinking, refine our strategic layout, turn dangers into opportunities, and achieve high-quality development. In the following, I will focus on several issues from a development strategy perspective. 

当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,这次疫情也是百年不遇,既是一次危机,也是一次大考。当前,我国疫情防控形势已经越过拐点,但疫情全球大流行仍处在上升期,外部形势非常严峻,我们要切实做好外防输入、内防反弹工作,决不能让疫情卷土重来。同时,我们要举一反三,进行更有长远性的思考,完善战略布局,做到化危为机,实现高质量发展。下面,我着重从发展战略角度讲几个问题。

First, steadfastly implement the strategy of domestic demand expansion. Building a complete internal demand system bears on China’s long-term development and long-term peace and stability. Since [the beginning of] reform and opening up [in 1978], and especially after joining the WTO, China entered the international great circulation (国际大循环), formed the market and resources (such as mineral resources) “two heads overseas” and “factory of the world” development models. This has played an important role in China’s seizing of economic globalization opportunities, its rapid increase in economic strength, and the improvement of the people’s livelihoods. In recent years, economic globalization has encountered headwinds, and this pandemic may intensify counter-globalization trends. With inward-turning tendencies clearly on the rise among nations, there could be significant changes in the external environment facing China’s development. Implementing the internal demand expansion strategy is a necessity for responding to the pandemic’s impact. It is a necessity for maintaining the long-term, sustainable and healthy development of China’s economy, and it is a necessity for satisfying the people’s ever-growing demand for a high standard of living (美好生活). 

第一,坚定实施扩大内需战略。构建完整的内需体系,关系我国长远发展和长治久安。改革开放特别是加入世贸组织后,我国加入国际大循环,形成了市场和资源(如矿产资源)“两头在外”、形成“世界工厂”的发展模式,对我国抓住经济全球化机遇、快速提升经济实力、改善人民生活发挥了重要作用。近几年,经济全球化遭遇逆风,这次疫情可能加剧逆全球化趋势,各国内顾倾向明显上升,我国发展面临的外部环境可能出现重大变化。实施扩大内需战略,是当前应对疫情冲击的需要,是保持我国经济长期持续健康发展的需要,也是满足人民日益增长的美好生活的需要。

An advantage of large-country economies is the internal circulation that is possible. With a population of 1.4 billion and per capita GDP already over US$10,000, China is the world’s largest potential consumer market. Improvement and upgrading of people’s consumption, combined with modern technology and production methods, implies vast room for growth. We must firmly grasp this strategic basis that is demand expansion, make each link—production, distribution, circulation and consumption—rely more on the domestic market to achieve a virtuous circle, specify the strategic direction of supply-side structural reform, and promote the achievement of dynamic balance between aggregate supply and demand at higher levels. There is no contradiction between demand expansion and expanding opening up. The more smooth-flowing domestic circulation (国内循环) becomes, the greater the gravitational force it exerts on global resource factors, the more it facilitates building a new development pattern based on domestic great circulation (国内大循环) and mutually reinforcing domestic and international dual circulation (双循环), and the more it facilitates forming new advantages when participating in international competition and cooperation. 

大国经济的优势就是内部可循环。我国有14亿人口,人均国内生产总值已经突破1万美元,是全球最大最有潜力的消费市场。居民消费优化升级,同现代科技和生产方式相结合,蕴含着巨大增长空间。我们要牢牢把握扩大内需这一战略基点,使生产、分配、流通、消费各环节更多依托国内市场实现良性循环,明确供给侧结构性改革的战略方向,促进总供给和总需求在更高水平上实现动态平衡。扩大内需和扩大开放并不矛盾。国内循环越顺畅,越能形成对全球资源要素的引力场,越有利于构建以国内大循环为主体、国内国际双循环相互促进的新发展格局,越有利于形成参与国际竞争和合作新优势。

Consumption is an important engine of China’s economic growth, and the middle-income group is an important foundation for consumption. At present, China has a middle-income population of approximately 400 million, far and away the largest in the world. We must make expanding the middle-income group an important policy objective, optimize the income distribution structure, and build a sound mechanism in which the contributions of knowledge, technology, management, data and other factors of production are evaluated by the market, and compensation is determined according to the contributions of each. We must expand investments in human capital, so that more ordinary laborers enter the middle-income group through their own hard work. 

消费是我国经济增长的重要引擎,中等收入群体是消费的重要基础。目前,我国约有4亿中等收入人口,绝对规模世界最大。要把扩大中等收入群体规模作为重要政策目标,优化收入分配结构,健全知识、技术、管理、数据等生产要素由市场评价贡献、按贡献决定报酬的机制。要扩大人力资本投入,使更多普通劳动者通过自身努力进入中等收入群体。

Second, optimize and stabilize production chains and supply chains. Production chains (产业链) and supply chains cannot come uncoupled at critical times. This is an important characteristic that all large economies must possess. The current epidemic is a stress test under actual combat conditions. China’s perfected industrial system and strong mobilization and industry transformation capability have provided important material support for epidemic prevention and control. China increased its daily face mask production capacity from ten million at the end of January to 500 million currently [April 10, 2020]. At the same time, the epidemic’s impact has exposed hidden risks in China’s production chains and supply chains. In order to safeguard China’s industrial security and national security, we must focus on building production chains and supply chains that are independently controllable (自主可控), secure and reliable, and strive for important products and supply channels to all have at least one alternative source, forming the necessary industrial backup system. 

第二,优化和稳定产业链、供应链。产业链、供应链在关键时刻不能掉链子,这是大国经济必须具备的重要特征。这次疫情是一次实战状态下的压力测试。我国完备的产业体系、强大的动员组织和产业转换能力,为疫情防控提供了重要物质保障。我国口罩日产能从1月底1000万只提高到目前的5亿只。同时,疫情冲击也暴露出我国产业链、供应链存在的风险隐患。为保障我国产业安全和国家安全,要着力打造自主可控、安全可靠的产业链、供应链,力争重要产品和供应渠道都至少有一个替代来源,形成必要的产业备份系统。

The entire country is now getting back to work and resuming production. We should not and cannot simply repeat past patterns. Rather, we must work hard to refashion them into new production chains, and increase the levels of S&T innovation and import substitution across the board. This is an important focus for deepening supply-side structural reform, and is key for high-quality development. First, we must build on our advantages, solidify and increase the leading international positions of strong industries, and forge some “assassin’s mace” technologies. We must sustain and enhance our superiority across the entire production chain in sectors such as high-speed rail, electric power equipment, new energy, and communications equipment, and improve industrial quality; and we must tighten international production chains’ dependence on China, forming powerful countermeasures and deterrent capabilities based on artificially cutting off supply to foreigners. Second, we must make up for our shortcomings. That is, in sectors and segments related to national security, we must build a domestic supply system that is independently controllable and secure and reliable, so that self-circulation (自我循环) can be accomplished at critical moments, and ensure that the economy operates normally in extreme situations. 

现在,全国都在复工复产,我们不应该也不可能再简单重复过去的模式,而应该努力重塑新的产业链,全面加大科技创新和进口替代力度,这是深化供给侧结构性改革的重点,也是实现高质量发展的关键。一是要拉长长板,巩固提升优势产业的国际领先地位,锻造一些“杀手锏”技术,持续增强高铁、电力装备、新能源、通信设备等领域的全产业链优势,提升产业质量,拉紧国际产业链对我国的依存关系,形成对外方人为断供的强有力反制和威慑能力。二是要补齐短板,就是要在关系国家安全的领域和节点构建自主可控、安全可靠的国内生产供应体系,在关键时刻可以做到自我循环,确保在极端情况下经济正常运转。

China’s online economy is world-leading, and it has played a positive role during this epidemic prevention and control period. Online office work, shopping, education and medicine are flourishing and integrating deeply with the offline economy. We must take advantage of this favorable momentum, accelerate construction of the digital economy, digital society and digital government, promote digitalization-based optimization and upgrading in all fields, actively participate in the formulation of international rules for digital currency, digital taxation, etc., and create new competitive advantages. At the same time, it must be recognized that the real economy is the foundation, and the various manufacturing industries cannot be abandoned. As a large country with a population of 1.4 billion, the focus of the food and real economy industries must be on ourselves, and this point must not be abandoned. 

我国线上经济全球领先,在这次疫情防控中发挥了积极作用,线上办公、线上购物、线上教育、线上医疗蓬勃发展并同线下经济深度交融。我们要乘势而上,加快数字经济、数字社会、数字政府建设,推动各领域数字化优化升级,积极参与数字货币、数字税等国际规则制定,塑造新的竞争优势。同时,必须看到,实体经济是基础,各种制造业不能丢,作为14亿人口的大国,粮食和实体产业要以自己为主,这一条绝对不能丢。

For the national economy to operate normally, it is necessary to strengthen awareness of disaster prevention and preparedness. Fortune is as unpredictable as the weather, bringing people both disasters and blessings. We must vigorously strengthen the construction of disaster prevention and preparedness systems and capabilities, and be willing to spend the time and money, preferring to take many precautions even if most are never needed. In some fields, we must make proper preparations to respond to once-in-a-century disasters. We must insist on walking with both legs (两条腿走路), implement the integration of central government reserves with local government reserves, combining tangible physical reserves with production capacity reserves, and combining national reserves with enterprise and commercial reserves, and properly handle military-civil fusion (军民融合) reserves. We must optimize the types of emergency response materials and the layout of reserves, and must rationally determine the scale of reserves, increasing investment and construction efforts across the board. 

国民经济要正常运转,必须增强防灾备灾意识。天有不测风云,人有旦夕祸福。要大力加强防灾备灾体系和能力建设,舍得花钱,舍得下功夫,宁肯十防九空,有些领域要做好应对百年一遇灾害的准备。要坚持两条腿走路,实行中央储备和地方储备相结合,实物储备和产能储备相结合,国家储备和企业商业储备相结合,搞好军民融合储备。要优化应急物资品种和储备布局,要合理确定储备规模,全面加大投资建设力度。

State-owned enterprises (SOEs) have rushed to the fore in the course of this epidemic. They have played important roles, and they have played a key role in promoting industrial circulation. SOEs are an important material and political foundation for socialism with Chinese characteristics. They are an important pillar and supporting force of the Party’s governance and rejuvenation of the nation, and they must be made stronger, better and larger. Of course, SOEs also require reform and optimization, but they must never be repudiated, and must never be weakened. We must uphold and refine the new structure for leveraging national capabilities (新型举国体制), and continuously strengthen leadership capacity, organizational capacity and implementation capacity. 

在这次抗击疫情过程中,国有企业冲在前面,发挥了重要作用,在促进产业循环中也起到了关键作用。国有企业是中国特色社会主义的重要物质基础和政治基础,是党执政兴国的重要支柱和依靠力量,必须做强做优做大。当然,国有企业也要改革优化,但绝对不能否定、绝对不能削弱。要坚持和完善新型举国体制,不断增强领导力、组织力、执行力。

This period of epidemic prevention and control has made us recognize the need to protect the global public good attributes of production chains and supply chains, and resolutely oppose the politicization and weaponization of production and supply chains. In international trade talks, we must push for an international consensus and standards on protecting the security of global production and supply chains, and eliminating the interference of non-economic factors, and must strive through international cooperation to stop bad behavior that strikes at global production and supply chains. 

这次疫情防控使我们认识到,必须维护产业链、供应链的全球公共产品属性,坚决反对把产业链、供应链政治化、武器化。在国际经贸谈判中,要推动形成维护全球产业链供应链安全、消除非经济因素干扰的国际共识和准则,力争通过国际合作阻止打击全球产业链、供应链的恶劣行为。

Third, refine the urbanization strategy. What approach should China take toward urbanization? This is a major question. The key is that we must make the safety of people’s lives and their physical health serve as fundamental goals of urban development. At present, the urbanization rate of China’s resident population has reached 60.6%, and it will rise further in the coming period. We must do better at promoting people-focused (以人为核心) urbanization, making cities healthier, safer and more livable, so they become high-quality living spaces for the masses of the people. 

第三,完善城市化战略。我国城市化道路怎么走?这是个重大问题,关键是要把人民生命安全和身体健康作为城市发展的基础目标。目前,我国常住人口城镇化率已经达到60.6%,今后一个时期还会上升。要更好推进以人为核心的城镇化,使城市更健康、更安全、更宜居,成为人民群众高品质生活的空间。

Strengthening the economic and population sustenance capacity of areas with economic development advantages such as central cities and urban agglomerations—this is consistent with objective laws. At the same time, urban development cannot consider economies of scale alone. Ecology and security must be placed in more prominent positions, with overall consideration being given in urban layouts to economic needs, livelihood needs, ecological needs, and security needs. We must adhere to the people-centered (以人为中心) development ideology, and to taking the society’s overall progress and people’s overall development as the starting point. We must formulate urban development plans under the guidance of ecological civilization ideology and the concept of overall national security, build cities that are livable, resilient and smart, and establish high-quality urban ecosystems and security systems. 

增强中心城市和城市群等经济发展优势区域的经济和人口承载能力,这是符合客观规律的。同时,城市发展不能只考虑规模经济效益,必须把生态和安全放在更加突出的位置,统筹城市布局的经济需要、生活需要、生态需要、安全需要。要坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,坚持从社会全面进步和人的全面发展出发,在生态文明思想和总体国家安全观指导下制定城市发展规划,打造宜居城市、韧性城市、智能城市,建立高质量的城市生态系统和安全系统。

The concentration of industry and population in favorable regions is an objective economic law, but the scale of urban units cannot expand without limit. At present, the population density of China’s megacities (with urban resident populations over ten million) and large cities (with urban resident populations over five million) is high overall. The density of Beijing proper and Shanghai proper are over 20,000 people per square kilometer. In Tokyo and New York City, it is only around 13,000. In the long run, cities nationwide must control population density rationally according to actual circumstances, and there must be control standards for the average population density of large cities. We must build a host of ecological and livable suburban new towns with city-industry integration, jobs-housing balance, and convenient transportation, and promote multi-centered suburban development. We must promote the orderly construction of digital cities, improve smart management capabilities, and gradually resolve the population and functional overcrowding problems of central cities. 

产业和人口向优势区域集中是客观经济规律,但城市单体规模不能无限扩张。目前,我国超大城市(城区常住人口1000万人以上)和特大城市(城区常住人口500万人以上) 人口密度总体偏高,北京、上海主城区密度都在每平方公里2万人以上,东京和纽约只有1.3万人左右。长期来看,全国城市都要根据实际合理控制人口密度,大城市人口平均密度要有控制标准。要建设一批产城融合、职住平衡、生态宜居、交通便利的郊区新城,推动多中心、郊区化发展,有序推动数字城市建设,提高智能管理能力,逐步解决中心城区人口和功能过密问题。

Local situations across China vary greatly, and it is necessary to use methods suited to local circumstances in promoting diversification of patterns among urban spaces. In densely populated regions like eastern China, we must optimize the internal spatial structures of urban agglomerations. We must rationally control the scale of large cities, and cannot blindly “make the pie bigger” (“摊大饼”). We must promote urban cluster-style development, and form network-structured urban agglomerations with more centers, more levels, and more nodes. Between cities, we must both enhance interconnectedness and ensure there are ecological and security barriers. For provinces in central and western China where conditions are right, we must consciously cultivate multi-centered cities, and avoid the pitfalls of “single-city dominance.” China has 1,881 county-level cities. Peasants (农民) going to the county seat to buy houses and clustering around county seats is a very common phenomenon. We must select, for priority development, a batch of county seats with the right conditions, strengthen policy guidance, and have them become points of support for internal demand expansion. There is enormous demand and room for development in terms of cities’ old town and old quarter renovation, underground pipeline network and parking garage construction, and services such as childcare, elder care, housekeeping, education, and health care. 

我国各地情况千差万别,要因地制宜推进城市空间布局形态多元化。东部等人口密集地区,要优化城市群内部空间结构,合理控制大城市规模,不能盲目“摊大饼”。要推动城市组团式发展,形成多中心、多层级、多节点的网络型城市群结构。城市之间既要加强互联互通,也要有必要的生态和安全屏障。中西部有条件的省区,要有意识地培育多个中心城市,避免“一市独大”的弊端。我国现有1881个县市,农民到县城买房子、向县城集聚的现象很普遍,要选择一批条件好的县城重点发展,加强政策引导,使之成为扩大内需的重要支撑点。在城市旧城和老旧小区改造,地下管网、停车场建设,托幼、养老、家政、教育、医疗服务等方面都有巨大需求和发展空间。

Fourth, adjust and optimize the structure of S&T inputs and outputs. This epidemic prevention and control period has been a real-life test of China’s science and technology community. The S&T front has both shown capabilities and exposed shortcomings. We must optimize the layout of S&T resources, boost S&T innovation capabilities, and follow a science and technology R&D path consistent with China’s national conditions. 

第四,调整优化科技投入和产出结构。这次疫情防控对我国科技界是一次真刀真枪的检验。科技战线既显了身手,也露了短板。要优化科技资源布局,提升科技创新能力,走出一条符合我国国情的科技研发道路。

In S&T development, we must insist on being problem-oriented and goal-oriented. Ensuring the safety of people’s lives and their physical health is an important mission for the Party and the nation, and scientific research must derive major, cutting-edge science and major, breakthrough and major research topics from it. We must place greater emphasis on basic research in heredity, genetics, virology, epidemiology and immunology, accelerate R&D and technological innovation of related drugs and vaccines, and attach greater importance to applications of information and data technologies in these fields. We must emphasize top-level design, optimize the layout of basic research, bolster fields we are strong in, refine the arrangement of university major, strengthen basic curriculum education and talent development, shore up neglected and weak areas, gradually enlarge China’s basic research system, and work hard to produce more “from zero to one” original achievements. 

科技发展要坚持问题导向、目标导向。保障人民生命安全和身体健康是党和国家的重要任务,科学研究要从中凝练重大科学前沿和重大攻关课题。要更加重视遗传学、基因学、病毒学、流行病学、免疫学等生命科学的基础研究,加快相关药物疫苗的研发和技术创新,高度重视信息和大数据技术在这些领域的应用。要重视顶层设计,优化基础研究布局,做强优势领域,完善高校专业设置,加强基础学科教育和人才培养,补上冷门短板,把我国基础研究体系逐步壮大起来,努力多出“从0到1”的原创性成果。

During this epidemic prevention and control period, many exemplary models have been formed that combine industry, universities and research institutions, and it will be well worth summarizing them carefully. We must make innovations in our mechanism for the commercialization of S&T achievements (科技成果转化), let enterprises play the main role and government play an overall planning role, promote the linking of capital, technology, applications, markets and other essential elements, work hard to resolve the organic connection problem of the basic research “first mile” and the achievement commercialization and market application “last mile,” and forge innovation chains and value chains between industry, universities and research institutions. 

在这次疫情防控中,形成了不少产学研相结合的典范,值得认真总结。要创新科技成果转化机制,发挥企业主体作用和政府统筹作用,促进资金、技术、应用、市场等要素对接,努力解决基础研究“最先一公里”和成果转化、市场应用“最后一公里”有机衔接问题,打通产学研创新链、价值链。

Fifth, achieve the harmonious coexistence of people and nature. As I have emphasized many times, people and nature are a living community. Humankind must respect nature, conform to nature, and protect nature. This epidemic prevention and control period has made us realize more profoundly that constructing ecological civilization concerns the Millennium Plan (千年大计) for the perpetually sustainable development of the Chinese nation. We must plan economic and social development standing on the heights of harmonious coexistence between people and nature. 

第五,实现人与自然和谐共生。我多次强调,人与自然是生命共同体,人类必须尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然。这次疫情防控使我们更加深切地认识到,生态文明建设是关系中华民族永续发展的千年大计,必须站在人与自然和谐共生的高度来谋划经济社会发展。

Engels noted long ago: We must not “flatter ourselves overmuch on account of our human conquest over nature. For each such victory, nature takes its revenge on us.” Since the first industrial revolution, mankind’s ability to use nature has increased continuously, but excessive development also leads to decreasing biodiversity, forces wild animals to migrate and increases the spread of the pathogens that are in wild animals. Since the start of the new century, from SARS to bird flu, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and the Ebola virus, to this COVID-19 epidemic, the frequency with which new infectious diseases are emerging worldwide has increased significantly. Only by better balancing the relationship between humans and nature, and protecting the balance of ecosystems, can we safeguard human health. We must deepen our appreciation of regularity in the living community of people and nature, and step up construction of ecological civilization across the board. The banner of ecological civilization must be raised high. 

恩格斯早就指出:“我们不要过分陶醉于我们人类对自然界的胜利。对于每一次这样的胜利,自然界都对我们进行报复。”第一次工业革命以来,人类利用自然的能力不断提高,但过度开发也导致生物多样性减少,迫使野生动物迁徙,增加野生动物体内病原的扩散传播。新世纪以来,从非典到禽流感、中东呼吸综合征、埃博拉病毒,再到这次新冠肺炎疫情,全球新发传染病频率明显升高。只有更好平衡人与自然的关系,维护生态系统平衡,才能守护人类健康。要深化对人与自然生命共同体的规律性认识,全面加快生态文明建设。生态文明这个旗帜必须高扬。

More and more human activities are pressing against natural ecological boundaries and bottom lines. We must maintain safe boundaries and bottom lines for nature, forming a pattern of harmonious coexistence between people and nature. This includes both physical boundaries and invisible boundaries. We must refine the spatial planning of the nation’s lands, properly implement the Major Functional Zone (主体功能区) strategy, specify ecological red lines, accelerate formation of the system of nature conservation areas, refine the biodiversity conservation network, and put reasonable spatial limits on economic and social activities. 

越来越多的人类活动不断触及自然生态的边界和底线。要为自然守住安全边界和底线,形成人与自然和谐共生的格局。这里既包括有形的边界,也包括无形的边界。要完善国土空间规划,落实好主体功能区战略,明确生态红线,加快形成自然保护地体系,完善生物多样性保护网络,在空间上对经济社会活动进行合理限定。

We must strengthen the ecological awareness of all ethnic groups (民族), encourage green production and consumption, and promote the formation of healthy approaches to civilized production and living. We must thoroughly carry out patriotic health activities, promote a healthy food culture and good living habits, and crack down on illegal hunting and trading of wild animals. 

要增强全民族生态环保意识,鼓励绿色生产和消费,推动形成健康文明生产生活方式。要深入开展爱国卫生运动,倡导健康饮食文化和良好生活习惯,严厉打击非法捕杀和交易野生动物的行为。

Sixth, strengthen construction of the public health system. China’s public health services have made universally recognized achievements, but this epidemic prevention and control period has also reflected some shortcomings in China’s public health sectors, and efforts to make up for them must be accelerated. 

第六,加强公共卫生体系建设。我国公共卫生事业取得了举世公认的成就,但这次疫情防控也反映出我国公共卫生领域还存在明显短板,需要加快补上。

In terms of top-level design, we must elevate the position of the public health system in the national governance system, reinforce public health institutions at the central, provincial, city and county levels, strengthen building of professional talents and teams, and increase their ability to perform their duties. We must improve the rural public health environment, and strengthen grassroots prevention and control and public health services in rural areas and communities. We must strengthen planning and construction of public health institutions, hospital infectious disease departments, biology laboratories, etc., and properly manage sensitive medical and experimental data. We must strengthen health education and scientific literacy, and raise the public health literacy of the masses. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played an important role during this epidemic prevention and control period. We must promptly summarize experience, strengthen scientific empiricism, vigorously develop TCM services, strengthen the combination of TCM and Western medicine, and steadily raise capabilities and standards. 

要从顶层设计上提高公共卫生体系在国家治理体系中的地位,充实中央、省、市、县四级公共卫生机构,加强专业人才培养和队伍建设,提高履职尽责能力。要改善城乡公共卫生环境,加强农村、社区等基层防控和公共卫生服务。要加强公共卫生机构、医院感染病科、生物实验室等的规划建设,做好敏感医疗和实验数据管理。要加强卫生健康教育和科学知识普及,提高群众公共卫生素养。在这次疫情防控中,中医发挥了重要作用,要及时总结经验,加强科学论证,大力发展中医药事业,加强中西医结合,不断提高能力和水平。

As past experience at fighting major epidemics has shown, it is necessary to accelerate development of systems for early discovery, early warning and early response, and we must strive to nip epidemics in the bud. We must make reinforcing our early detection and warning capabilities the top priority for a sound public health system, and refine the public health emergency response management system. We must strengthen the sharing of information between disease control units, hospitals and scientific research organizations, and enhance our early warning capabilities for all kinds of known and emerging infectious diseases. 

历次抗击重大传染病疫情的实践表明,必须加快形成从下到上早发现、早预警、早应对的体系,努力把疫情控制在萌芽状态。要把增强早期监测预警能力作为健全公共卫生体系的重中之重,完善公共卫生应急管理体系。要加强疾控、医院、科研单位间的信息共享,增强各类已知和新发传染病预警能力。

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Cite This Page

习近平 (Xi Jinping) (2022). "Major Issues Concerning China’s Strategies for Mid-to-Long-Term Economic and Social Development [国家中长期经济社会发展战略若干重大问题]". Interpret: China, Original work published October 31, 2020, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/major-issues-concerning-chinas-strategies-for-mid-to-long-term-economic-and-social-development/

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