全球发展倡议与“一带一路”协同增效
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Synergies Between the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative

全球发展倡议与“一带一路”协同增效

With the announcement of the Global Development Initiative in late 2021, important questions were raised about the future of the Belt & Road Initiative (BRI). Here, two scholars from Renmin University argue that the GDI is an addition to, not a replacement of, the BRI.


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On September 21, 2021, President Xi Jinping proposed the Global Development Initiative during the general debate of the 76th United Nations General Assembly. This is another major public product that China has provided to the international community.

2021年9月21日,习近平主席在第76届联合国大会一般性辩论期间提出全球发展倡议。这是中国向国际社会提供的又一重大公共产品。

Development is the master key to solving all problems, and it is also the aspiration of all countries. As a contributor to global development, from the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013 to the Global Development Initiative in 2021, China has contributed Chinese wisdom, Chinese solutions, and Chinese strength to solving development problems and development deficits.

发展是解决一切问题的总钥匙,也是各国民心所向。作为全球发展的贡献者,从2013年提出“一带一路”倡议到2021年全球发展倡议,中国为破解发展难题、解决发展赤字贡献了中国智慧、中国方案、中国力量。

China Power: Driving a New Transformation from International Development to Global Development

中国力量:推动国际发展到全球发展新转变

At present, developing countries are still the “prone areas” of global development problems and face severe challenges in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The World Bank’s 2022 Global Economic Outlook pointed out that the risk of a “hard landing” in developing countries is rising. Not only is the debt problem of developing countries far from resolved, some countries and regions have even returned to poverty and chaos as a result of the pandemic, and the failure of governance in some developing countries has added complexity to the global development deficit. Under the existing development framework, North-South cooperation is progressing slowly, and ODA to developing countries from developed countries is less than half of the pledged amount. In particular, the least developed countries are still far behind the global pace in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

当前,发展中国家仍然是全球发展问题的“多发地”,在落实2030年可持续发展议程上面临严峻挑战。世界银行2022年《全球经济展望》指出,发展中国家“硬着陆”风险上升。不仅发展中国家债务问题远未解决,部分国家和地区甚至因疫返贫、因疫生乱,部分发展中国家治理失效增加了全球发展赤字的复杂性。在现有发展框架下,南北合作进展缓慢,发达国家对发展中国家的官方发展援助不及承诺数额的一半,特别是最不发达国家在实现可持续发展目标上还远远落后于全球步伐。

Not only has the original development process of developing countries stagnated and regressed, but developed countries are also facing new development challenges. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the development achievements accumulated by the international community over the years have been severely eroded, and developing countries have faced unprecedented shocks and tests. In July 2021, UN Secretary-General Guterres said: In 2020, there will be 720 million to 811 million people facing hunger in the world, an increase of about 161 million people compared with 2019. The data shows that in terms of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, the world is “largely off track.” The post-pandemic recovery of the world economy is struggling, with inflation in some developed countries rising to multi-year highs, and interest rate hikes in the United States and Europe posing stagflation challenges to the global economy. There are also many people in developed countries who are living in dire predicaments, and social problems frequently occur. The ongoing turmoil in Ukraine has had a serious impact on the economy of the eurozone, international energy and food prices have continued to rise, and global supply chain disruptions have intensified. The North and the South still have a cognitive mismatch with regards to the global development deficit, and the fragmented global consciousness has become a major obstacle to global development cooperation.

不仅发展中国家原有发展进程停滞倒退,发达国家也同样面临新的发展挑战。新冠肺炎疫情暴发以来,国际社会多年积累的发展成果遭受严重侵蚀、发展中国家面临前所未有的冲击和考验。2021年7月联合国秘书长古特雷斯表示:2020年,全球有7.2亿至8.11亿人面临饥饿,比2019年增加了约1.61亿人,数据表明,在2030年实现可持续发展目标方面,世界“在很大程度上未在既定轨道之上”。世界经济疫后复苏步履维艰,部分发达国家通胀水平上升至多年高位,美欧加息给全球经济带来滞胀挑战。发达国家中也有不少民众生活陷入困境,社会问题频发。乌克兰局势持续动荡对欧元区经济造成严重影响,国际能源和粮食价格不断走高,全球供应链紊乱加剧。南北各方对于全球发展赤字仍存在认知赤字,割裂的全球意识成为制约全球发展合作的主要障碍。

The great changes unseen in a century and the COVID-19 pandemic are intertwined and superimposed, calling for global development to move towards a new stage of balance, coordination, and inclusiveness. According to the United Nation’s 2021 Sustainable Development Goals Progress Report, the pandemic has slowed down the progress of 17 goals under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and even reversed in some areas, with the Human Development Index declining for the first time in three decades. In the past, the mechanism of international development was still centered on the West, with a few developed countries holding the power to formulate rules and set agendas. President Xi Jinping proposed the Global Development Initiative, emphasizing the achievement of “stronger, greener, and healthier” global development to enhance the representation and voice of developing countries in international affairs, fully demonstrating the great practical significance of China’s firm determination to attach importance to common development and promote the realization of global development.

百年未有之大变局与新冠肺炎疫情交织叠加呼唤全球发展迈向平衡协调包容新阶段。根据联合国《2021年可持续发展目标进展报告》,疫情造成2030年可持续发展议程下的17个目标进度放缓,部分领域甚至出现倒退,人类发展指数三十年来首次下降。过去的国际发展机制仍以西方为重心,少数发达国家把持规则制定权和议程设置权。习近平主席提出全球发展倡议,强调实现“更加强劲、绿色、健康”的全球发展,提升广大发展中国家在国际事务中的代表性和发言权,充分展现了中国重视共同发展、推动实现全球发展的坚定决心,具有重大现实意义。

The China Plan: Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative

中国方案:全球发展与“一带一路”双倡议齐发力

It is against the background of this era that the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative, as dual programs provided by China for the world, place the promotion of common development in a prominent position and form a new force and a new point of integration. It can be seen that the development dimensions of the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative are highly compatible, the processes are connected, and the platforms are mutually reinforcing, which are in line with their respective development stages and tasks, and conform to the laws of global development. Based on the theory of Marxist internationalism, this provides strategic guidance and fundamental compliance for development and cooperation in the new era.

正是在这种时代背景下,全球发展倡议和“一带一路”倡议作为中国为全球提供的双方案,把促进共同发展置于突出位置,形成了新发力点和新结合点。可以看到,全球发展倡议与“一带一路”倡议的发展维度内容高度契合、进程相互对接、平台相互促进,契合了各自的发展阶段和发展任务,符合全球发展规律,是以马克思主义国际主义理论为指导的具有中国特色的重大国际倡议,为新时代发展合作提供了战略引领和根本遵循。

In terms of cooperation, the Belt and Road and Global Development initiatives, as innovative concepts, provide strategic guidance and fundamental compliance for development cooperation in the new era. The 2030 Agenda is a negotiation consensus of 193 countries around the world, fully expressing the concerns and cares of all countries in the world, and providing a common discourse system for South-South cooperation and North-South dialogue under the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative. The core concepts of the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative are people-centric, adhere to the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits, and combine Chinese concepts with the needs of the world. In 1994, China was the first among more than 190 countries in the world to release its own sustainable development action plan – China’s Agenda 21. Entering the 21st century, China’s status as a major developing country has not changed, nor has its empathy for the concerns and needs of other countries. The core of the Global Development Initiative is to promote common development, with the undertones of development priorities, upholding the primacy of people, inclusiveness, innovation, harmonious coexistence between man and nature, and the action-oriented “Six Commitments” and the goal of building a community with a shared future for global development. “The destiny of all mankind is closely related, and the interests of all countries are closely linked.” We ultimately must promote the construction of a community with a shared future for all of mankind.

在合作理念上,“一带一路”和全球发展倡议等作为理念创新,为新时代发展合作提供了战略引领和根本遵循。2030年议程是全球193个国家的谈判共识,充分表达了世界各国的关心关切,为全球发展倡议和“一带一路”倡议下南南合作和南北对话提供了共同的话语体系。全球发展倡议与“一带一路”倡议最核心的理念都是以人民为中心,坚持共商共建共享原则,将中国的理念与世界的需求相结合。1994年,中国在全世界190多个国家中第一个发布了本国的可持续发展行动计划——《中国21世纪议程》。进入21世纪,中国作为发展中大国的地位没有改变,急他国之所急、想他国之所想的共情之心没有改变。全球发展倡议核心是推动共同发展,以发展优先、以人民为中心、普惠包容、创新驱动、人与自然和谐共生、行动导向“六个坚持”为内涵,以构建全球发展命运共同体为目标。“人类命运休戚与共,各国利益紧密相连”,最终推动构建人类命运共同体。

In key areas, the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda are highly compatible with the five areas of the Belt and Road’s policy communication, facility connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and people-to-people bonds. The Global Development Initiative and the 2020 UN Decade of Action plan echo one another, focusing on the most pressing issues currently facing developing countries, such as poverty alleviation, food security, economic recovery, education and health and offering “21st century solutions.” Focusing on a series of basic issues, such as why development is needed, for whom development is needed, whom development relies on, and how to develop, the two initiatives promote one another in key areas and jointly contribute to the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals. By giving play to the important platform role of the Belt and Road Initiative, we will focus on building a healthy silk road, a green silk road, a digital silk road, and an innovative silk road and will jointly build large-scale key projects and “small but beautiful and effective” projects. When promoted alongside the Global Development Initiative, we can focus on the development needs of developing countries and continuously enhance the sense of happiness, gain, and security of local people. The World Bank’s Belt and Road Economics report predicts that by 2030, the Belt and Road Initiative is expected to help 7.6 million people in related countries escape from extreme poverty and 32 million people escape from moderate poverty, injecting new impetus into global development cooperation.

在重点领域上,2030年议程17项目标与“一带一路”政策沟通、设施联通、贸易畅通、资金融通、民心相通五大领域高度契合,全球发展倡议与2020年联合国“行动十年”规划彼此呼应,聚焦减贫脱贫、粮食安全、经济复苏、教育卫生等当前发展中国家面临的最紧迫问题,提供“21世纪的解决方案”。围绕为什么要发展、发展为了谁、发展依靠谁、如何发展等一系列基本问题,双倡议在重点领域相互促进,共同助力可持续发展目标实现。通过发挥“一带一路”倡议重要平台作用,重点打造健康丝绸之路、绿色丝绸之路、数字丝绸之路、创新丝绸之路,合作建设一项项大手笔重点工程和一个个“小而美、见效快、惠民生”项目,与全球发展倡议一道关注发展中国家发展需求,不断增强当地民众的幸福感、获得感、安全感。世界银行《“一带一路”经济学》报告预测,到2030年,“一带一路”倡议有望帮助相关国家760万人摆脱极端贫困、3200万人摆脱中度贫困,为全球发展合作注入了新动力。

In agenda setting, the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative are the main drivers of global South-South cooperation. On the one hand, China has incorporated specific sustainable development goals into its national mid- and long-term development plans and has made them clear and detailed in key special plans to promote the effective alignment of the sustainable development agenda with the 14th Five-Year Plan and the 2035 vision. China has also vigorously carried out foreign aid and international development cooperation in the new era and has provided an important cooperation platform for building a community with a shared future for mankind. On the other hand, China works with international and regional organizations, especially the United Nations system and has translated documents such as the Memorandum of Understanding on Advancing the Belt and Road Initiative and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and Action Plan for the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Initiative to Support Industrialization in Africa and the Least Developed Countries into practical action; China has also strengthened strategic cooperation with emerging market countries and has coordinated with the development process of small island, landlocked, and least developed countries. China has formed a consensus on the Belt and Road Initiative with two-thirds of the world’s countries and one-third of major international organizations. The launch of the Friends of the Global Development Initiative marks an important step in the construction of the initiative’s cooperation mechanism.

在议程设置上,全球发展倡议和“一带一路”倡议是全球南南合作的主要推动力。一方面,中国将可持续发展具体目标纳入国家中长期发展规划,在重点专项规划中予以明确和细化,推动可持续发展议程与“十四五”规划和2035年远景目标有效对接。大力开展新时代对外援助和国际发展合作,为构建人类命运共同体提供重要合作平台。另一方面,中国与国际和地区组织尤其是联合国系统携手合作,《关于推进“一带一路”倡议和2030年可持续发展议程的谅解备忘录》《落实2030年可持续发展议程行动计划》《支持非洲和最不发达国家工业化倡议》等文件已经转化为务实行动,中国还加强同新兴市场国家战略协作,同小岛屿、内陆、最不发达国家发展进程协同。中国已经同世界2/3的国家和1/3的主要国际组织形成了“一带一路”共识,全球发展倡议之友小组的启动标志着倡议合作机制建设的重要一步。

Chinese Wisdom: Sustainable development is good development, and development together is true development

中国智慧:可持续发展才是好发展,大家一起发展才是真发展

The Global Development Initiative countdown has already begun, with 17 Sustainable Development Goals and 169 targets that must be achieved by 2030. The Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative were proposed by China and belong to the world. They grasp the pulse of global development and urgent needs and have received positive responses and extensive support from the international community, showing strong resilience and vitality. To further achieve mutual promotion and synergy between the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative, it is necessary to promote implementation from three dimensions.

全球发展议程已经进入倒计时,17项可持续发展目标和169项具体目标必须在2030年之前实现。全球发展倡议与“一带一路”倡议由中国提出、属于世界,把握全球发展脉搏和迫切需求,得到国际社会积极响应和广泛支持,展现出强劲韧性与旺盛活力。全球发展倡议与“一带一路”进一步实现相互促进、协同增效,需要从三个维度推动落实。

The first is to unite developing countries and further unleash the potential of South-South cooperation. Within the framework of South-South cooperation, we will help other developing countries to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development within our capacity and respect the equal development opportunities and rights of developing countries. We will follow the action guidelines for pragmatic cooperation, seize development opportunities in the fields of digital economies, vaccine cooperation, connectivity, and green development and carry out joint self-improvement. We will adhere to the principles of “common but differentiated responsibilities” and require developed countries to live up to their words and deeds and support developing countries in their green and low-carbon transformations. We will explore new economic forms and new development models to help developing countries promote economic and social recovery and development.

一是团结广大发展中国家,进一步释放南南合作潜力。在南南合作框架内为其他发展中国家落实2030年可持续发展议程提供力所能及的帮助,尊重发展中国家平等的发展机会和权利。遵循务实合作的行动指南,把握数字经济、疫苗合作、互联互通和绿色发展等领域发展机遇,开展联合自强。坚持“共同但有区别的责任”等原则,要求发达国家言行一致,支持发展中国家绿色低碳转型。探索新经济形态和新发展模式,帮助广大发展中国家促进经济和社会恢复与发展。

The second is to unite with developed countries to further narrow the development gap between the North and the South. On July 1, 2015, China became a member of the OECD Development Center. OECD Secretary-General Gurría called it an “historic and transformative opportunity for mutual benefit and knowledge sharing.” The economic development model of “promising government and effective market” explored by China’s reform and opening up has achieved both economic growth and economic development. At the same time, it has also exerted its late-mover advantages and first-mover advantages with great appeal. As the largest developing country, the largest emerging country, and the second largest economy, China plays the role of bridge and link in the G20. This is the driving force behind the Belt and Road Initiative as it develops third-party markets. The measures taken by developed countries to accelerate economic recovery and international development commitments will determine the development path in the next five or even ten years and will directly affect the success of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. We urge developed countries to implement their development aid commitments, implement responsible macroeconomic policies, curb the global spread of high inflation, and reduce negative spillover effects on developing countries. We will jointly oppose any country or individual engaging in technological blockades, technological divides, and decoupling of development. While refuting the West’s containment, suppression, attacks, and smears, we must promote North-South cooperation and trilateral cooperation.

二是联合发达国家,进一步缩小南北发展鸿沟。2015年7月1日,中国成为经合组织(OECD)发展中心成员。经合组织秘书长古里亚称之为“互惠互利、知识共享的历史性变革机遇”。中国改革开放探索出的“有为政府+有效市场”的经济发展模式,同时实现了经济增长和经济发展,同时发挥了后发优势与先发优势,具有巨大的吸引力。作为最大的发展中国家、最大的新兴国家和第二大经济体,中国在G20扮演桥梁和纽带作用。这是“一带一路”建设主张开发第三方市场的动力。发达国家加速经济复苏采取的措施和国际发展承诺将决定未来五年甚至十年的发展道路,直接影响2030年可持续发展目标的实现。敦促发达国家落实发展援助承诺,实施负责任宏观经济政策,遏制高通胀向全球蔓延,减少对发展中国家的负面外溢效应。共同反对任何国家和个人搞技术封锁、科技鸿沟、发展脱钩,反驳西方对我遏制打压、攻击抹黑的同时,推动南北合作和三方合作。

The third is to strengthen and give play to the role of the United Nations and practice multilateralism. We will continue to push the United Nations to put development at the core of its agenda and practice multilateralism in all aspects of international development cooperation. We will take a clear stand against unilateralism and protectionism and oppose ideological demarcation and politicization of development issues. We will insist that international affairs be discussed by everyone, continue to adhere to the international development cooperation pattern with North-South cooperation as the main channel and South-South cooperation as the supplement, and promote and lead the construction of discourse systems, knowledge construction, and paradigm research for global development cooperation under the multilateral development framework. We will promote the active participation of the private sector, NGOs, expert think tanks, and the media in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

三是加强和发挥联合国作用,践行多边主义。继续推动联合国将发展置于议程核心位置,将践行多边主义贯穿在国际发展合作的各方面。旗帜鲜明地反对单边主义和保护主义,反对意识形态划线和发展问题政治化。坚持国际上的事大家商量着办,继续坚持南北合作为主渠道、南南合作为补充的国际发展合作格局,在多边发展框架下推动和引领全球发展合作的话语体系建设、知识构建、范式研究。推动私营部门、非政府组织、专家智库、媒体等积极参与落实2030年议程。

In a word, by “refocusing” on development issues, “recommitting” to the sustainable development goals, “reboosting” global partnerships, and “reactivating” international development cooperation, China is trying to narrow the gap between the North and the South and break the development imbalance. A “roadmap” has been proposed, providing an “accelerator” for advancing the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and bringing together a strong synergy to promote a stronger, greener, and healthier global development and build a community with a shared future for mankind. The Global Development Initiative and Belt and Road Initiative have continuously contributed Chinese wisdom, Chinese solutions, and Chinese strength to the improvement of the global governance system, the promotion of global common development, and the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

总之,通过对发展问题“再聚焦”、对可持续发展目标“再承诺”、对全球伙伴关系“再提振”、对国际发展合作“再激活”,中国为缩小南北鸿沟、破解发展不平衡提出了“路线图”,为推进联合国2030年可持续发展议程提供了“加速器”,为推动实现更加强劲、绿色、健康的全球发展,构建人类命运共同体凝聚起强大合力。全球发展倡议和“一带一路”倡议不断为完善全球治理体系、促进全球共同发展、推动构建人类命运共同体贡献中国智慧、中国方案、中国力量。

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Cite This Page

陈超 (Chen Chao)王义桅 (Wang Yiwei) (2022). "Synergies Between the Global Development Initiative and the Belt and Road Initiative [全球发展倡议与“一带一路”协同增效]". Interpret: China, Original work published May 27, 2022, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/synergies-between-global-development-initiative-and-the-belt-and-road-initiative/

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