正确认识和把握我国发展重大理论和实践问题
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The Correct Understanding of Major Theoretical and Practical Problems of China’s Development

正确认识和把握我国发展重大理论和实践问题

This Xi Jinping speech from the December 2021 Central Economic Work Conference, published in the May 2022 edition of China’s leading theoretical journal Qiushi, discusses major issues in China’s future development path and signals a renewed emphasis on common prosperity and stricter regulation of capital.


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This is part of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the Central Economic Work Conference on December 8, 2021.

这是习近平总书记2021年12月8日在中央经济工作会议上讲话的一部分。

As we enter into a new stage of development, China’s internal and external environment for development has undergone profound changes, and there are many new major problems that need to be correctly understood and grasped. Here, I focus on a few issues.

进入新发展阶段,我国发展内外环境发生深刻变化,面临许多新的重大问题,需要正确认识和把握。这里,我重点讲几个问题。

The first issue: we must correctly understand and grasp the strategic goals and practical ways to achieve common prosperity. “The wealthy people of a country must care about enriching the common people.” The creation and distribution of wealth is a major issue faced by all countries. For some western countries, as social wealth has continued to grow so has wealth disparity and polarization. In some Latin American countries, income is not high, but the distribution gap in wealth is very large. Under China’s socialist system, it is not only necessary to continuously liberate and develop social productive forces, and to continuously create and accumulate social wealth, but also to prevent polarization, and to earnestly promote the all-around development of human beings and the common prosperity of all people to achieve more obvious and substantial progress. In the past, we were egalitarian at a low-income level. After the reform and opening up, some regions and some people became rich first, and the income gap gradually widened. The improper accumulation of some wealth has brought risks and challenges to the healthy operation of the economy and society.

第一个问题:正确认识和把握实现共同富裕的战略目标和实践途径。“国之称富者,在乎丰民。”财富的创造和分配是各国都面对的重大问题。一些西方国家在社会财富不断增长的同时长期存在贫富悬殊、两极分化。有的拉美国家收入不算高,但分配差距很大。在我国社会主义制度下,既要不断解放和发展社会生产力,不断创造和积累社会财富,又要防止两极分化,切实推动人的全面发展、全体人民共同富裕取得更为明显的实质性进展。过去我们是低收入水平下的平均主义,改革开放后一部分地区、一部分人先富起来了,同时收入差距也逐步拉大,一些财富不当聚集给经济社会健康运行带来了风险挑战。

Common prosperity is the essential requirement of socialism with Chinese characteristics. What should the path to common prosperity look like? We are currently exploring this. To achieve the goal of common prosperity, we must first make the “cake” bigger and better through the joint efforts of the people of the whole country, and then correctly handle the relationship between growth and distribution through reasonable institutional arrangements, so as to divide the “cake” well. This is a long-term historical process. We must create conditions, improve systems, and steadily move towards this goal.

共同富裕是中国特色社会主义的本质要求。共同富裕路子应当怎么走?我们正在进行探索。实现共同富裕的目标,首先要通过全国人民共同奋斗把“蛋糕”做大做好,然后通过合理的制度安排正确处理增长和分配关系,把“蛋糕”切好分好。这是一个长期的历史过程,我们要创造条件、完善制度,稳步朝着这个目标迈进。

It is necessary to strengthen employment as a priority in order to promote high-quality development. Employment is the foundation of people’s livelihood. Employment is the driving force of economic growth, so it is important to continuously promote the expansion of employment and the improvement of the quality of employment. It is necessary to support the development of small, medium and micro enterprises and give full play to their role as a channel for employers. It is necessary to learn from the lessons of some Western countries’ economic transitions from the “real to the virtual,” 1 continue to expand the real economy, and create more high-quality jobs. It is necessary to increase investment in human capital, improve the quality of education, strengthen vocational education and skills training, improve the quality of workers, better meet the needs of high-quality development, and effectively prevent large-scale unemployment risks.

要在推动高质量发展中强化就业优先导向。就业是民生之本。要提高经济增长的就业带动力,不断促进就业量的扩大和质的提升。要支持中小微企业发展,发挥其就业主渠道作用。要吸取一些西方国家经济“脱实向虚”的教训,不断壮大实体经济,创造更多高质量就业岗位。要加大人力资本投入,提升教育质量,加强职业教育和技能培训,提高劳动者素质,更好适应高质量发展需要,切实防范规模性失业风险。

It is important that everyone is performing their assigned function and role. It is necessary to properly handle the relationship between efficiency and fairness, and build basic institutional arrangements for primary distribution, redistribution, and coordination of three distributions. We must adhere to the principle of distribution according to work, increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the initial distribution, and improve the policy of distribution according to different factors. It is necessary to give full play to the role of redistribution, and increase the adjustment of taxation, social security, transfer payments, etc., and improve the accuracy of record keeping. It is necessary to give full play to the role of the Third Distribution Theory, 2 and guide and support willing and capable enterprises and social groups to actively participate in public welfare and charitable undertakings without engaging in “forced donations” in the form of moral kidnapping.

要发挥分配的功能和作用。要处理好效率和公平关系,构建初次分配、再分配、三次分配协调配套的基础性制度安排。要坚持按劳分配为主体,提高劳动报酬在初次分配中的比重,完善按要素分配政策。要发挥再分配的调节作用,加大税收、社保、转移支付等的调节力度,提高精准性。要发挥好第三次分配作用,引导、支持有意愿有能力的企业和社会群体积极参与公益慈善事业,但不能搞道德绑架式“逼捐”。

It is necessary to improve the public service policy system. To promote common prosperity, we must not engage in “welfare”. Some Latin American countries in the past have engaged in populism, and welfare in these countries has raised a group of “lazy people” with unearned incomes. As a result, the countries’ financial systems were overwhelmed and fell into the “middle-income trap” 3, that they were unable to extricate themselves from for a long time. Welfare benefits cannot decrease if they go up, and “Welfare-ism” that exceeds one’s ability is unsustainable, and it will inevitably bring about serious economic and political problems! We must adhere to doing our best and do what we can, focusing on improving the level of public services, accurately providing basic public services in the fields of education, medical care, elderly care, housing and other areas that the people are most concerned about, and taking care of the most basic needs of life for people in need, without raising the expectation of welfare to cover all expenses, or providing empty promises.

要完善公共服务政策制度体系。促进共同富裕,不能搞“福利主义”那一套。当年一些拉美国家搞民粹主义,高福利养了一批“懒人”和不劳而获者,结果国家财政不堪重负,落入“中等收入陷阱”,长期不能自拔。福利待遇上去了就下不来了,搞超出能力的“福利主义”是不可持续的,必然会带来严重的经济和政治问题!我们要坚持尽力而为、量力而行,重在提升公共服务水平,在教育、医疗、养老、住房等人民群众最关心的领域精准提供基本公共服务,兜住困难群众基本生活底线,不吊高胃口、不空头许诺。

The second issue: correctly understand and grasp the characteristics and behavioral laws of capital. Marx and Engels did not envisage that a market economy could be developed under socialist conditions, and of course they could not foresee how socialist countries would treat capital. Although Lenin and Stalin led the socialist construction of the Soviet Union, at that time the Soviet Union implemented a highly centralized planned economic system and basically did not encounter large-scale capital problems. To engage in a socialist market economy is a great creation of our party. Since it is a socialist market economy, it will inevitably produce various forms of capital. Although there are many differences between capital in capitalist society and capital in socialist society, capital is all about chasing profits. “The key to uniting the people is to manage their wealth appropriately 4. We should explore how to play the positive role of capital under the conditions of a socialist market economy, while effectively controlling the negative role of capital. In recent years, due to lack of awareness and lack of supervision, capital has expanded in a disorderly way, manipulated arbitrarily, and made huge profits in some areas of our country. This requires regulating the behavior of capital, seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages, not allowing “capital predators” to act recklessly, but also giving full play to the function of capital as a factor of production. This is a major political and economic issue that cannot be avoided.

第二个问题:正确认识和把握资本的特性和行为规律。马克思、恩格斯没有设想社会主义条件下可以搞市场经济,当然也就无法预见社会主义国家如何对待资本。列宁、斯大林虽然领导了苏联社会主义建设,但当时苏联实行的是高度集中的计划经济体制,基本上没有遇到大规模资本问题。搞社会主义市场经济是我们党的一个伟大创造。既然是社会主义市场经济,就必然会产生各种形态的资本。资本主义社会的资本和社会主义社会的资本固然有很多不同,但资本都是要追逐利润的。“合天下之众者财,理天下之财者法。”我们要探索如何在社会主义市场经济条件下发挥资本的积极作用,同时有效控制资本的消极作用。近年来,由于认识不足、监管缺位,我国一些领域出现资本无序扩张,肆意操纵,牟取暴利。这就要求规范资本行为,趋利避害,既不让“资本大鳄”恣意妄为,又要发挥资本作为生产要素的功能。这是一个不容回避的重大政治和经济问题。

In practical work, the following points should be paid attention to. To set “traffic lights” for capital. “Traffic lights” apply to all means of transportation on the road, and the same is true for capital. All types of capital cannot run amok. To prevent the savage growth of some capital, we must fight against monopoly, profiteering, sky-high prices, malicious hype, and unfair competition. Effective supervision of capital should be strengthened in accordance with the law. The socialist market economy is an economy ruled by law, and capital activities must be carried out in accordance with the law. To curb the disorderly expansion of capital, it is not the absence of capital, but the orderly development of capital. Relevant laws and regulations that are not perfect should be improved as soon as possible, and those with existing laws and regulations should be strictly enforced and supervised. To support and guide the healthy development of capital norms. It is necessary to uphold and improve the basic socialist economic system, unswervingly consolidate and develop the public economy, unswervingly encourage, support, and guide the development of the non-public economy, and promote the healthy development of the non-public economy and the healthy growth of people in the non-public economy.

实际工作中,要抓好以下几点。要为资本设置“红绿灯”。“红绿灯”适用于道路上行驶的所有交通工具,对待资本也一样,各类资本都不能横冲直撞。要防止有些资本野蛮生长。要反垄断、反暴利、反天价、反恶意炒作、反不正当竞争。要依法加强对资本的有效监管。社会主义市场经济是法治经济,资本活动要依法进行。遏制资本无序扩张,不是不要资本,而是要资本有序发展。相关法律法规不健全的要抓紧完善,已有法律法规的要严格执法监管。要支持和引导资本规范健康发展。要坚持和完善社会主义基本经济制度,毫不动摇巩固和发展公有制经济,毫不动摇鼓励、支持、引导非公有制经济发展,促进非公有制经济健康发展和非公有制经济人士健康成长。

The third issue: correctly understand and grasp the supply guarantee of primary products. For a big country like ours, ensuring the supply of primary products is a major strategic issue. It is necessary to strengthen strategic planning and make early adjustments to ensure supply security.

第三个问题:正确认识和把握初级产品供给保障。对我们这样一个大国来说,保障好初级产品供给是一个重大的战略性问题。必须加强战略谋划,及早作出调整,确保供给安全。

Saving must be a priority. “If you take something and use it sparingly, you will be rich; if you take something without control and use it improperly, you will be poor.” 5 It is necessary to implement a comprehensive conservation strategy and promote conservation actions in various fields. In the field of production, it is necessary to promote the comprehensive conservation, intensive and circular utilization of resources, reduce the energy consumption and material consumption per unit of product, speed up the technological transformation of the manufacturing industry, and improve the efficiency of input and output. In the field of consumption, it is necessary to enhance the consciousness of saving for the entire population, advocate a simple, moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle, oppose extravagance, waste and excessive consumption, carry out in-depth food saving initiatives, such as the “Empty Plate” initiative, and extensively carry out the creation of green institutions, green families, green communities, green travel and other actions.

要坚持节约优先。“取之有制、用之有节则裕,取之无制、用之不节则乏。”要实施全面节约战略,推进各领域节约行动。在生产领域,要推进资源全面节约、集约、循环利用,降低单位产品能耗物耗,加快制造业技术改造,提高投入产出效率。在消费领域,要增强全民节约意识,倡导简约适度、绿色低碳的生活方式,反对奢侈浪费和过度消费,深入开展“光盘”等粮食节约行动,广泛开展创建绿色机关、绿色家庭、绿色社区、绿色出行等行动。

It is necessary to enhance domestic resource production and security capabilities. It is necessary to intensify exploration efforts, implement a new round of strategic actions for ore prospecting breakthroughs, and improve the level of development and protection of marine resources and mineral resources. It is necessary to clarify the strategic bottom line of self-sufficiency in domestic production of important energy resources, give full play to the supporting role of state-owned enterprises, and accelerate the development and application of advanced extraction technologies for oil and gas and other resources. It is necessary to strengthen the construction of the national strategic material reserve system and play a role in regulating the bottom line at critical moments. It is necessary to promote garbage classification and recycling, expand the use of domestic solid waste, and speed up the construction of a waste recycling system.

要增强国内资源生产保障能力。要加大勘查力度,实施新一轮找矿突破战略行动,提高海洋资源、矿产资源开发保护水平。要明确重要能源资源国内生产自给的战略底线,发挥国有企业支撑托底作用,加快油气等资源先进开采技术开发应用。要加强国家战略物资储备制度建设,在关键时刻发挥保底线的调节作用。要推行垃圾分类和资源化,扩大国内固体废弃物的使用,加快构建废弃物循环利用体系。

It is necessary to optimize the ability to guarantee overseas resources. It is necessary to make full use of both domestic and international markets and resources in a mutually beneficial and win-win manner, strengthen energy and resource cooperation with relevant countries on the premise of effectively preventing foreign investment risks, and expand the rights and interests of overseas high-quality resources.

要优化海外资源保障能力。要以互利共赢的方式充分利用国际国内两个市场、两种资源,在有效防范对外投资风险的前提下加强同有关国家的能源资源合作,扩大海外优质资源权益。

Here, I would like to emphasize the security of agricultural product supply. According to the latest land survey results, the area of arable land is still decreasing, and the basic farmland in some places does not grow food, fruit trees, or other high value-added crops. I have repeatedly said that Chinese people’s rice bowls should be firmly in their hands at all times, and our rice bowls should mainly contain Chinese grains. It is necessary to put the improvement of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in a more prominent position, continue to promote the construction of high-standard farmland, deeply implement the revitalization of the seed industry, improve the level of agricultural machinery and equipment, ensure the reasonable income of farmers who grow grain, ensure the absolute safety of grain rations and the basic self-sufficiency of grain, and improve the production and self-sufficiency of oil and soybeans.

这里,我要特别强调农产品供给安全问题。从最新的国土调查结果看,耕地面积还在减少,一些地方的基本农田不种粮食种果树,或者其他高附加值作物。我反复讲,中国人的饭碗任何时候都要牢牢端在自己手中,我们的饭碗应该主要装中国粮。要把提高农业综合生产能力放在更加突出的位置,持续推进高标准农田建设,深入实施种业振兴行动,提高农机装备水平,保障种粮农民合理收益,确保口粮绝对安全、谷物基本自给,提高油料、大豆产能和自给率。

The fourth issue: correctly understand and grasp the prevention and resolution of major risks. Since the 1990s, China has effectively dealt with major challenges such as the Asian financial crisis, the international financial crisis, and the COVID-19 pandemic. At present, there are many hidden risks in China’s economic and financial fields, but they are generally controllable. Stick to bottom-line thinking. The ancients said: “When disasters start to happen, you want to be like Du Qimeng.” We must give full play to the party’s leadership and the advantages of our socialist system in order to avoid large risks and crises.

第四个问题:正确认识和把握防范化解重大风险。上世纪90年代以来,我国有效应对了亚洲金融危机、国际金融危机、新冠肺炎疫情等重大考验。现在,我国经济金融领域风险隐患很多,但总体可控。要坚持底线思维。古人说:“祸几始作,当杜其萌;疾证方形,当绝其根。”我们要发挥好党的领导和我国社会主义制度优势,见微知著,抓早抓小,着力避免发生重大风险或危机。

In the previous stage, we effectively dealt with shadow banking risks and Internet financial risks. At the same time, we must also see that new risks are still occurring, and the “black swan” and “gray rhino” incidents continue to occur. 6 There are several important reasons for analyzing these phenomena. One is the result of long-term accumulation. The impact of the “three-phase superposition” is not over yet, and the early risks still need to be digested. The second is regulatory capacity and institutional deficiencies. Serious oversight of corporate governance of financial institutions, and unsuitable financial supervision capabilities and levels. The management of local debts has been lax, and some localities have disguised and illegally borrowed, and the debt burden has continued to increase. The third is the barbaric behavior of the borrower. Some large enterprises are blindly impulsive, irrational diversification, excessive reliance on financial leverage, and excessive industrial capital entering the financial industry. Some shareholders and actual controllers operate and manage financial enterprises in violation of laws and regulations, with insider control, manipulation by major shareholders, financial fraud, and wanton misappropriation of funds. Fourth, collusion and corruption between officials and businessmen is rampant. The heads of some financial institutions and government officials are derelict of duty, corrupt, enriching their own pockets, and relying on the generosity of the country, resulting in heavy losses. Fifth, there are changes in the economic cycle. The slowdown in economic growth has brought to light all kinds of risks that were originally hidden, and the probability of local risks causing systemic risks has increased. Additionally, the risks characterized by corporate insolvency are prominent.

前一阶段,我们有效处置了影子银行风险、互联网金融风险。同时,也要看到,新的风险仍在发生,“黑天鹅”、“灰犀牛”事件不断。分析这些现象,有几个重要原因。一是长期累积的结果。“三期叠加”影响还没有结束,前期风险仍要消化。二是监管能力和制度缺陷。对金融机构公司治理问题严重失察,金融监管能力和水平不适应。对地方债务管理松弛,有的地方变相违规举债,债务负担持续增加。三是借债人野蛮行为。一些大企业盲目冲动,非理性多元化扩张,过度依赖金融杠杆,产业资本过度进入金融行业。一些股东和实际控制人违法违规经营管理金融企业,存在内部人控制、大股东操纵,财务造假,大肆挪用资金。四是官商勾结和腐败行为。一些金融机构负责人和政府官员失职渎职、贪污腐败、中饱私囊,慷国家之慨,造成重大损失。五是经济周期变化。经济增速下行使原本隐藏的各类风险水落石出,局部风险引发系统风险的概率加大,以企业资不抵债为特征的风险突出。

In the next step, we must continue to follow the basic policy of stabilizing the overall situation, making plans, implementing policies by category, and do a good job in risk disposal. It is necessary to comply with laws and regulations, strengthen the construction of the financial rule of law, and explore the establishment of a regular law revision system. It is necessary to consolidate responsibilities with everyone “holding their own”, consolidate local party and government responsibilities, be responsible for territorial stability maintenance and defuse risks; consolidate the responsibilities of financial supervision, industry supervisors, discipline inspection and supervision departments, and promote risk resolution according to their respective responsibilities. We must also realize the main responsibility of enterprises for self-rescue, and formulate feasible risk resolution plans. It is necessary to strengthen capacity building, improve the level of regulatory technology, make up for regulatory shortcomings, and strengthen the construction of financial regulatory cadres. We must have sufficient resources, promptly set up a financial stability guarantee fund, give full play to the role of the deposit insurance system and guarantee funds in risk disposal, and study and formulate support policies for promoting mergers and acquisitions of financial institutions and resolving non-performing assets. Local governments should take the initiative to revitalize existing assets and defuse risks. Corporate shareholders must first bear the risk of loss until the share capital is cleared. It is necessary for all parties to cooperate extensively, and the financial industry should establish an integrated risk disposal mechanism, fully authorize, coordinate and improve the ability of cross-market and cross-industry coordination.

下一步,要继续按照稳定大局、统筹协调、分类施策、精准拆弹的基本方针,抓好风险处置工作。要依法合规,加强金融法治建设,探索建立定期修法制度。要压实责任,“谁家孩子谁抱”,压实地方党政同责,负责属地维稳和化解风险;压实金融监管、行业主管、纪检监察等部门责任,按照各自职责推动风险化解;压实企业自救主体责任,制定可行的风险化解方案。要强化能力建设,提升监管科技水平,补齐监管短板,加强金融监管干部队伍建设。要有充足资源,抓紧设立金融稳定保障基金,发挥存款保险制度和行业保障基金在风险处置中的作用,研究制定促进金融机构兼并收购和化解不良资产的支持政策。地方要主动盘活存量资产,化解风险。企业股东要首先承担风险损失,直至股本清零。要各方广泛配合,金融业建立一体化风险处置机制,充分授权,统筹协调,提高跨市场跨行业统筹应对能力。

Special attention should be paid to the risks of some real estate companies. All localities should earnestly take responsibility, strengthen supervision, keep a bottom line of no systemic risks, and maintain the stable and healthy development of the real estate market.

对一些房地产企业的风险要格外重视。各地要切实担起责任、强化监管,守住不发生系统性风险的底线,保持房地产市场平稳健康发展。

The fifth issue: correct understanding and grasp of carbon neutralization. Promoting carbon neutrality is a major strategic decision made by the Party Central Committee after careful consideration. It is our solemn commitment to the international community and an inherent requirement for promoting high-quality development. Recently, some problems have arisen in practical work, some are engaged in “carbon charge”, some are engaged in “one size fits all”, sports “carbon reduction”, and even the phenomenon of “power cut off”, all of which do not meet the requirements of the Party Central Committee. Green and low-carbon development is a complex project and a long-term task for the comprehensive transformation of economic and social development. The adjustment of energy structure and industrial structure cannot be accomplished overnight, let alone divorced from reality. If the gradual withdrawal of traditional energy is not based on a safe and reliable alternative to new energy, it will have an impact on economic development and social stability. Pollution reduction and carbon reduction are an integral part of economic restructuring.

第五个问题:正确认识和把握碳达峰碳中和。推进碳达峰碳中和是党中央经过深思熟虑作出的重大战略决策,是我们对国际社会的庄严承诺,也是推动高质量发展的内在要求。近来在实际工作中出现一些问题,有的搞“碳冲锋”,有的搞“一刀切”、运动式“减碳”,甚至出现“拉闸限电”现象,这些都不符合党中央要求。绿色低碳发展是经济社会发展全面转型的复杂工程和长期任务,能源结构、产业结构调整不可能一蹴而就,更不能脱离实际。如果传统能源逐步退出不是建立在新能源安全可靠的替代基础上,就会对经济发展和社会稳定造成冲击。减污降碳是经济结构调整的有机组成部分,要先立后破、通盘谋划。

At the ninth meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Commission, I made a comprehensive deployment of the “dual carbon” work, emphasizing that we must adhere to the principles of national overall planning, conservation priority, two-wheel drive, smooth internal and external, and risk prevention. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has issued opinions on the carbon neutralization work and approved the carbon peaking action plan. Achieving the goal of reaching the peak and carbon neutrality must be firm, but it cannot be accomplished in one go. To be based on national conditions, it is our basic national conditions to focus on coal, and the realization of carbon peaking must be based on this reality. While doing a good job in the clean and efficient utilization of coal, speed up the flexible transformation of coal-fired power units, develop renewable energy, promote the optimal combination of coal and new energy, and increase the consumption capacity of new energy. We must pay close attention to tackling key green and low-carbon technologies and accelerate the promotion and application of advanced technologies. It is necessary to conduct scientific assessments, improve the “dual control” system of energy consumption, create conditions to realize the transition from “dual control” of energy consumption to “dual control” 7 of total carbon emissions and intensity, and accelerate the formation of an incentive and restraint mechanism for reducing pollution and carbon emissions. Relevant departments in all regions should coordinate the work of “dual control” and “dual carbon” to prevent simple decomposition. To ensure energy supply, achieve multi-objective balance, and increase energy supply through multiple channels, large enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises, must take the lead in ensuring supply and stable prices, and will never allow major incidents such as large-scale “power outages” to occur again. It is necessary to further promote the energy revolution, promote energy consumption, supply, technology, and institutional reforms, strengthen international cooperation, and accelerate the construction of an energy powerhouse.

我在中央财经委员会第九次会议上对“双碳”工作作了全面部署,强调要坚持全国统筹、节约优先、双轮驱动、内外畅通、防范风险的原则。党中央已经出台做好碳达峰碳中和工作的意见,批准了碳达峰行动方案。实现碳达峰碳中和目标要坚定不移,但不可能毕其功于一役,要坚持稳中求进,逐步实现。要立足国情,以煤为主是我们的基本国情,实现碳达峰必须立足这个实际。在抓好煤炭清洁高效利用的同时,加快煤电机组灵活性改造,发展可再生能源,推动煤炭和新能源优化组合,增加新能源消纳能力。要狠抓绿色低碳技术攻关,加快先进技术推广应用。要科学考核,完善能耗“双控”制度,创造条件尽早实现能耗“双控”向碳排放总量和强度“双控”转变,加快形成减污降碳的激励约束机制。各地区各有关部门要统筹做好“双控”、“双碳”工作,防止简单层层分解。要确保能源供应,实现多目标平衡,多渠道增加能源供应,大企业特别是国有企业要带头保供稳价,决不允许再次发生大面积“拉闸限电”这类重大事件。要深入推动能源革命,促进能源消费、供给、技术、体制改革,加强国际合作,加快建设能源强国。

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习近平 (Xi Jinping) (2022). "The Correct Understanding of Major Theoretical and Practical Problems of China’s Development [正确认识和把握我国发展重大理论和实践问题]". Interpret: China, Original work published May 15, 2022, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/the-correct-understanding-of-major-theoretical-and-practical-problems-of-chinas-development/

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