全球安全倡议的理论基础——总体国家安全观视角
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The Theoretical Foundation of the Global Security Initiative—The Holistic View of National Security

全球安全倡议的理论基础——总体国家安全观视角

This article from the deputy director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences links the Global Security Initiative directly to Xi Jinping’s Comprehensive National Security Outlook.


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President Xi Jinping delivered the keynote speech, titled Rising to Challenges and Building a Bright Future Through Cooperation, via video at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference 2022. In the keynote speech, he presented, for the first time to all the world, the Global Security Initiative, which includes “six commitments,” namely: “…that we stay committed to the vision of a common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and work together to maintain world peace and security; stay committed to respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries, uphold non-interference in internal affairs, and respect the independent choices of development paths and social systems made by people in different countries; stay committed to abiding by the purposes and principles of the U.N. Charter, reject the Cold War mentality, oppose unilateralism, and say no to group politics and bloc confrontation; stay committed to taking the legitimate security concerns of all countries seriously, uphold the principle of indivisible security, build a balanced, effective and sustainable security architecture, and oppose the pursuit of one’s own security at the cost of others’ security; stay committed to peacefully resolving differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation, support all efforts conducive to the peaceful settlement of crises, reject double standards, and oppose the wanton use of unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction; stay committed to maintaining security in both traditional and non-traditional domains, and work together on regional disputes and global challenges such as terrorism, climate change, cybersecurity and biosecurity.” This initiative has a deep and solid theoretical foundation. Based on profound strategic insights into current realities, it has great value in guiding global security practices.

在博鳌亚洲论坛2022年年会开幕式上,习近平主席以视频方式发表题为《携手迎接挑战,合作开创未来》的主旨演讲。在主旨演讲中他首次向全世界发出了包括“坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,共同维护世界和平和安全;坚持尊重各国主权、领土完整,不干涉别国内政,尊重各国人民自主选择的发展道路和社会制度;坚持遵守联合国宪章宗旨和原则,摒弃冷战思维,反对单边主义,不搞集团政治和阵营对抗;坚持重视各国合理安全关切,秉持安全不可分割原则,构建均衡、有效、可持续的安全架构,反对把本国安全建立在他国不安全的基础之上;坚持通过对话协商以和平方式解决国家间的分歧和争端,支持一切有利于和平解决危机的努力,不能搞双重标准,反对滥用单边制裁和‘长臂管辖’;坚持统筹维护传统领域和非传统领域安全,共同应对地区争端和恐怖主义、气候变化、网络安全、生物安全等全球性问题”等“六个坚持”内容的全球安全倡议。这一倡议具备坚实厚重的理论基础,基于对当前现实问题的深刻战略洞察,具备引领全球安全实践的重要价值。

At the first meeting of the National Security Commission in April 2014, General Secretary Xi Jinping creatively put forward a holistic approach to national security. The 19th Party Congress incorporated the commitments of the holistic approach to national security into the basic strategy of upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era and wrote them into the Party constitution. The holistic approach to national security is the first instance in the history of the Chinese Communist Party of major strategic thinking being established as the guiding thought for national security work. It is an important conceptual and theoretical contribution by contemporary China to the world. In December 2020, while presiding over the 26th Study Session of the 19th Politburo, General Secretary Xi Jinping gave a comprehensive, systematic, and complete presentation of the holistic approach to national security, in which he elucidated the overall goals of national security work in the new era and put forward the work requirements of the “ten adherences.”

2014年4月,习近平总书记在中央国家安全委员会第一次会议上,创造性提出总体国家安全观。党的十九大将坚持总体国家安全观纳入新时代坚持和发展中国特色社会主义的基本方略,并写入党章。总体国家安全观是中国共产党历史上第一个被确立为国家安全工作指导思想的重大战略思想,是当代中国对世界的重要思想理论贡献。2020年12月,习近平总书记在主持十九届中央政治局第二十六次集体学习时,对总体国家安全观作出全面、系统、完整的论述,阐明了新时代国家安全工作的总体目标,提出“十个坚持”的工作要求。

In November 2021, the sixth plenary session of the 19th CCP Central Committee considered and adopted the Resolution of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party over the Past Century. In this resolution, it ranked “safeguarding national security” as a historical achievement of the cause of the Party and the country in the new era and as one of the great historical transformations that have occurred; it systematically and comprehensively summed up the precious experience and major achievements of the Party in pushing forward the construction of national security systems and capabilities in the new era; and it put forward the “five coordinations,” namely “coordinating between development and security, between opening up and security, between traditional and non-traditional security, between China’s domestic security and the common security of the world, and between safeguarding national security and creating conditions conducive to it.” The resolution thus constitutes important content embodying the “holistic nature” of the holistic approach to national security.

2021年11月,党的十九届六中全会审议通过《中共中央关于党的百年奋斗重大成就和历史经验的决议》,把“维护国家安全”列为新时代党和国家事业取得的历史性成就、发生的历史性变革之一,系统全面总结了新时代党在推进国家安全体系和能力建设的宝贵经验和重大成就,提出了“统筹发展和安全,统筹开放和安全,统筹传统安全和非传统安全,统筹自身安全和共同安全,统筹维护国家安全和塑造国家安全”等“五个统筹”,构成体现总体国家安全观“总体性”的重要内容。

The “ten adherences” and “five coordinations” of the holistic approach to national security provide an important theoretical foundation for the “six commitments” of the Global Security Initiative. For example, “persist in promoting international common security,” which is part of the “ten adherences,” frames the core concept of the global security initiative, as well as its basic premises, its fundamental rules, its important principles, and its program of implementation paths and practical orientations. To give another example, “coordinating between traditional security and non-traditional security,” which is one of the “five coordinations,” covers the “six commitments” requirement of maintaining security in traditional and non-traditional domains, and “coordinating between China’s domestic security and the common security of the world” contains the content of “stay committed to respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries” and “stay committed to taking the legitimate security concerns of all countries seriously.”

总体国家安全观的“十个坚持”和“五个统筹”,为全球安全倡议的“六个坚持”提供了重要的学理基础。例如,“十个坚持”中的“坚持推进国际共同安全”,是框定全球安全倡议核心理念、基本前提、根本遵循、重要原则、实现路径及实践面向的总纲。再如,“五个统筹”中“统筹传统安全和非传统安全”,涵盖了“六个坚持”中维护传统领域和非传统领域安全的要求;“统筹自身安全和共同安全”蕴含了“坚持尊重各国主权、领土完整”“坚持重视各国合理安全关切”等内容。

The national security connotations and extensions established by the holistic approach to national security, based on a refining of excellent Chinese traditional culture and a summing up and original development of Marxist national security theory, rise to the heights of building a human community with a shared future. They possess abundant and precious values of all humankind and lay the scientific foundation for the ultimate worldwide acceptance of the Global Security Initiative. For all countries, and especially for the major powers, the connotations of national security are even more wide-ranging and its extensions are even broader. Their main manifestations arise in several areas, namely duality of interests, continuity of conditions, consistency of real feelings, correlation of the group to the self, and multidimensionality of domains. The connotations and extensions of national security in the current era need to be clarified for a more accurate understanding of the theoretical content and value orientations of the “six commitments.”

总体国家安全观确立的国家安全内涵外延,基于对中华优秀传统文化的提炼和对马克思主义国家安全理论的总结及原创性发展,并上升到构建人类命运共同体的高度,具备丰富宝贵的全人类共同价值,为全球安全倡议最终被世界广泛接受奠定了科学基础。对各国特别是大国来说,国家安全的内涵更加宽泛、外延更加广阔,主要表现在利益二元性、状态持续性、实感一致性、群己关联性、领域多维性等几个方面。厘清当今时代国家安全的内涵外延,才能更加准确理解“六个坚持”的理论内蕴和价值取向。

First, national security objects or the national interests to which they are directed and which they safeguard not only include a great variety of material interests, but also encompass a wide array of non-material interests such as institutions, reputations, and values. The essence of national security is the safeguarding or assurance of national interests. In different times and places, a state will define and rank its own interest categories and their relative importance differently; the content and priorities of national security that is of concern to it will likewise vary. In the current era, national security has already gone far beyond the traditional categories of national territory and military security and seeks to protect many kinds of material—and especially non-material—national interests. Each country decides and ranks matters of national security priority according to its own national interest preferences. The more this becomes a reality, the more important it is to adopt the common ground principle of the Global Security Initiative, that of “abiding by the purposes and principles of the U.N. Charter” as the rule rather than trying to intolerantly press ahead with one’s “own set of rules” that underhandedly push one’s own selfish interests and infringe upon the institutional, reputational, and value interests of other countries.

第一,国家安全对象或所指向及维护的国家利益不仅包括种类繁多的物质性利益,而且囊括了制度、声誉、价值观等丰富的非物质性利益。国家安全的本质是国家利益得到维护或保障。不同时空背景下,国家对自身利益的种类范围及其重要性的排序并不相同,所关切的国家安全的内容及其优先性也不一样。当今时代,国家安全已经大大超出传统的国土、军事安全的范畴,试图保障诸多方面的物质性,特别是非物质性国家利益,各国按照自身国家利益偏好来决定国家安全的优先事项及其排序。越是如此,在处理国际安全关系时,越应该以全球安全倡议“遵守联合国宪章宗旨和原则”的最大公约数作为准则,而不是试图偏执地推行夹带“一己之私”的“家法帮规”,侵犯其他国家的制度、声誉、价值观利益。

Second, national security objectives not only emphasize that national interests be in a secure condition, but also emphasize that the country be capable of sustainably safeguarding a secure condition. Some research also emphasizes security as the condition of being free of dangers or threats. For example, “If a country does not need to sacrifice its core values when preferring not to wage war, but can wage victorious war and maintain its values when challenged, this country is secure.” There is also research which considers security as equivalent to the ability to ensure security. For example, “National security is the ability of one nation state to use economic, military, political, diplomatic, and judicial measures to overcome domestic and international threats.” In the current era, to emphasize exclusively either condition or capability indicates an incomplete understanding of national security. A secure condition is an assessment of an overall static state wherein the security capability is sufficient to overcome security threats, and security capability reflects a historic assurance of security sustainability. It is only through a combination of the two that national security can be grasped within a dynamic equilibrium. This is the proper significance of the conceptual emphasis placed by the Global Security Initiative on the “sustainability of security.”

第二,国家安全目标不仅强调国家利益处于安全状态,而且强调国家具备可持续地维护安全状态的能力。一些研究还强调作为没有危险或不受威胁之状态的安全。例如,“如果一个国家在不想打仗的时候不必牺牲核心价值观;在受到挑战时可以打胜仗并维护其价值观,这个国家就是安全的”。还有一些研究将安全等同于确保安全的能力。例如,“国家安全是一个民族国家使用经济、军事、政治、外交和司法措施来克服国内和国际威胁的能力”。当今时代,只强调状态或只强调能力对国家安全的理解都是不完整的。安全状态是对安全能力足以克服安全威胁的整体静态评估,而安全能力反映的是对安全可持续性的历时性保障,两者结合才能在动态平衡中把握国家安全,这是全球安全倡议在理念上强调“安全的可持续性”的应有之义。

Third, the secure condition of a country includes not only the assurance that its national interests are in an objectively secure condition, but also includes a subjective security status that assures an accurate understanding of this condition and a “sense of security.” A country that objectively is not endangered or threatened, but that subjectively lacks a “sense of security” is a country that is relatively security sensitive and that is subject to severe security risks triggered by minor disturbances. A country that is objectively beset with difficulties, but that subjectively disregards risks and turns a blind eye to threats is likewise subject to disruptive national security crises. The only durable national security is one wherein subjective experience and understanding are commensurate with objective conditions. This means that both the commitment to “respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries” and the commitment to “taking the legitimate security concerns of all countries seriously” are very important in the Global Security Initiative. Security status is highly related to understanding. It is necessary to adhere to the principle of indivisible security, enabling each party with a security concern to be whole in terms of both its objective and subjective security, while opposing the establishment of one country’s security on the foundation of other countries’ insecurity. Ultimately, attempts arising from the lack of a sense of security to gain the initiative by striking the first blow through top-down “color revolutions” or armed invasions will plunge regions, or even the world, into security dilemmas.

第三,国家安全状态不仅包括确保国家利益处于客观安全状态,而且包括确保对此存在准确认知或具有“安全感”的主观安全状态。一国客观上没有危险和威胁,但主观上缺乏“安全感”,这样的国家具有较大的安全敏感性,容易因微小的扰动就引发严重的安全风险。一国客观上困难重重,但主观上轻忽风险、对威胁视而不见,也容易发生颠覆性的国家安全危机。只有主观的感受认知与实际的客观情况相一致的国家安全,才是牢固的国家安全。这意味着,全球安全倡议的坚持“尊重各国主权、领土完整”“重视各国合理安全关切”都非常重要。安全状态与认知高度相关,必须秉持安全不可分割原则,让各安全关切方都能统一于客观安全和主观安全,反对把本国安全建立在他国不安全的基础之上,最终因缺乏安全感而试图以自上而下的“颜色革命”或自外而内的武装入侵“先发制人”,令地区乃至世界陷入安全困境。

Fourth, in the current era, how national security is implemented should not be limited to the security of one’s own country, but should also emphasize the common security of all countries. Against a background of economic globalization, the national interests of each country are interwoven with the interests of all other countries. To be fully realized, national security must be supported by international security or common security. Some countries define common security narrowly. For example, the national security strategy of the United States limits common security to “like-minded” allies. This way of differentiating between allies and rivals and of pursuing absolute security for oneself and one’s allies often results in a situation of “uniting with those that agree and attacking those who do not” on a regional or even global scale, with a tendency towards “acting from a position of strength,” i.e., using power or violence to resolve differences or disputes between countries. This contradicts the “peaceful approach employing dialogue and consultation” emphasized by the Global Security Initiative. Adherence to the idea of a human community that has a shared future and that one treats as one’s own family is the only way that countries will have an intrinsic motivation to peacefully resolve disputes through dialogue and consultation.

第四,当今时代,国家安全的实现范围不仅要包括本国自身安全,而且强调各国的共同安全。在经济全球化背景之下,各国国家利益与其他国家的利益相互交织,国家安全也必须在国际安全或共同安全的依托下才能充分实现。一些国家对共同安全的范围作出狭隘的界定,例如美国的国家安全战略把共同安全范围限定在所谓“志同道合”的盟友之间。这种划分盟友与对手并且追求自身及盟友绝对安全的做法,往往造成区域乃至全球范围“党同伐异”,倾向于“从实力地位出发”,用强权或暴力来解决国家间的分歧和争端,这与全球安全倡议强调的“对话协商以和平方式”背道而驰。只有秉持“斯世当以同怀视之”的人类命运共同体理念,才能在国家之间形成对话协商和平解决纷争的内在激励。

Fifth, in the current era, extensions of national security should be able to cover the main traditional and non-traditional security domains and undergo dynamic adjustment as the core and major interest domains of countries change. This could be defined as “integrating core and extended key domains in one national security system.” Ancient China regarded “land, people, and governance” as the three treasures of a country. References in modern Western political theory to a “country” have a similar threefold meaning: country (i.e., national territory), nation, and state. The handling of traditional and non-traditional security threats to these three main objects has always been the core security concern of China and all foreign countries, in both ancient and modern times. In this regard, the Global Security Initiative commitment “to maintaining security in both traditional and non-traditional domains” should certainly entail paying special attention to planning for those risks and challenges that could endanger the security of the country, the nation, and the state. In other words, security issues relating to areas such as military affairs, economics, culture, society, science and technology, ecology, resources, nuclear technology, overseas interests, biology, space, deep seas, polar regions, and artificial intelligence often interact and are interwoven. Overall planning should be conducted to eliminate these issues so as to avoid producing an impact on the situation as a whole, which would result if these issues were to rise above a certain limit in respect to scale, scope, or level.

第五,当今时代,国家安全的外延应能够覆盖主要的传统安全领域和非传统安全领域,并随着国家核心及重大利益领域的变化而能动态调整,可定义为“集核心及延伸重点领域安全于一体的国家安全体系”。古代中国将“土地、人民、政事”视作国之三宝,现代西方政治理论中对国家的指涉同样涵盖了国土(country)、国民(nation)、政府(state)三重含义,古今中外处理这三大对象面临的传统和非传统安全威胁,都是各国的核心安全关切。对此,全球安全倡议“坚持统筹维护传统领域和非传统领域安全”,无疑也应该特别注重统筹应对那些可能危及国土安全、人民安全、政治安全的风险挑战。换言之,军事、经济、文化、社会、科技、生态、资源、核、海外利益、生物、太空、深海、极地、人工智能等领域的安全问题,往往相互影响交织,应当统筹化解,避免其规模、范围或程度超过一定限度产生全局性影响,危及到前述三大核心领域的安全。

In summary, functions of national security in the current era take into account the security of material interests and the security of non-material interests, objective security and subjective security, security status and security capability, and domestic security and common security. These extend to and broadly involve core and many important security domains, and they are closely connected to the larger background of this new era in which profound changes in the world unseen in a century are turbulently interacting with the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. These security features require a tolerant, scientific, and global initiative to guide and coordinate the security interests of all countries. The Global Security Initiative provides a classical Chinese solution and makes an important Chinese contribution.

总之,当今时代国家安全的内涵兼顾了物质性利益安全和非物质性利益安全、客观安全与主观安全、安全状态与安全能力、自身安全和共同安全,外延广涉核心及诸多重要安全领域,与世界百年未有之大变局与中华民族伟大复兴全局相互激荡的新时代的大背景息息相关。这些安全特征要求一个具备包容性、科学性、全球性的倡议来指引和协调各国安全利益,全球安全倡议提供了经典的中国方案,作出了重要的中国贡献。

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冯维江 (Feng Weijiang) (2022). "The Theoretical Foundation of the Global Security Initiative—The Holistic View of National Security [全球安全倡议的理论基础——总体国家安全观视角]". Interpret: China, Original work published June 16, 2022, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/the-theoretical-foundation-of-the-global-security-initiative-the-holistic-view-of-national-security/

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