深刻领悟全球安全倡议 统筹自身和共同安全
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Deep Comprehension of the Global Security Initiative: Coordinating Our Own Security and Common Security

深刻领悟全球安全倡议 统筹自身和共同安全

Scholars at one of China’s leading state-controlled international relations think tanks provide a lengthy overview of the recently-proposed Global Security Initiative, explain its core pillars, and link the idea of global security with China’s own national security.


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On April 21, 2022, President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia Annual Conference, proposing the Global Security Initiative for the first time. This initiative provides Chinese wisdom and Chinese solutions for maintaining world peace and tranquility, and demonstrates China’s shouldering of its responsibilities as a major country. After this major initiative was proposed, it attracted a high level of attention in China and abroad. Some experts from the Research Center for Overall National Security Outlook and the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR) organized study seminars to earnestly grasp the initiative’s profound meaning. Through study, everyone came to believe that the proposal of the initiative is a major strategic conclusion made by President Xi Jinping having considered the changes in today’s world, the changes of the times, and the changes of history. It is another important innovation to the Party’s national security theory for the new era, the main content of which is the overall national security outlook. It is of pioneering significance and must be systematically and deeply understood, comprehensively implemented, and continuously enriched and developed.

2022年4月21日,习近平主席在博鳌亚洲论坛年会开幕式上发表主旨演讲,首次提出全球安全倡议,为维护世界和平安宁提供中国智慧、中国方案,彰显大国担当。这一重大倡议提出后,在国内外引起高度关注,总体国家安全观研究中心和中国现代国际关系研究院部分专家组织学习研讨,认真领悟倡议深刻内涵。通过学习,大家认为,倡议的提出是习近平主席结合当今世界之变、时代之变、历史之变做出的重大战略论断,是对以总体国家安全观为主要内容的、新时代党的国家安全理论的又一重要创新,具有开创性意义,必须系统深入领悟、全面贯彻落实、不断丰富发展。

I. Guided by the Changes Unseen in a Century, Scientifically Judge the Main Security Threats of Today’s World

一、以百年变局为指引,科学判断当今世界主要安全威胁

In his speech, President Xi Jinping pointed out that at present, the changes in the world, the changes of the times, and the changes of history are unfolding in an unprecedented way, and there are many problems before us, posing challenges to humankind that must be taken seriously.

习近平主席在讲话中指出,当下,世界之变、时代之变、历史之变正以前所未有的方式展开,诸多问题摆在我们面前,给人类提出了必须严肃对待的挑战。

In today’s world, a once-in-a-century pandemic is superimposed on changes unseen in a century, the international landscape is evolving at an accelerated pace, various problems are emerging one after another, the trend of the diversification of security threats is more apparent, and the themes of peace and development have run up against grave challenges. The notions of security of different countries are becoming more complex. Faced with questions such as how to promote common security on the basis of realizing one’s own security, how to maintain one’s own security while maintaining common security, and how to balance the security of today and the security of tomorrow, there are varying ideas and fierce collisions, some of which even give rise to serious conflicts and turmoil. The notions are complex and the paths are diverse, posing real challenges to the security of all countries and world peace.

当今世界,世纪疫情叠加百年变局,国际格局加速演变,各类问题层出不穷,安全威胁多元化的趋势更加明显,和平与发展的时代主题遭遇严峻挑战。各国安全观念更趋纷繁复杂,如何在实现自身安全的基础上促进共同安全,如何在维护共同安全的条件下维护自身安全,如何平衡今天的安全与明天的安全等等,观念不一、激烈碰撞,有的还造成严重的冲突与动荡。观念复杂,道路多样,给各国安全和世界和平带来现实挑战。

In today’s world, the reasonable concerns of many countries regarding national sovereignty, territorial integrity and such, have not yet received a proper response. The basic pursuit of a development path and political system that suits one’s own characteristics is still not fully respected, and the basic requirements of equal rights such as the right to development, the right to have a voice, and the right to govern have not yet been effectively realized. In an era of turbulence and change, the exploration and pursuit by different countries of political systems, development paths, and social culture are at an unprecedentedly high level, which stands in sharp contrast to the brutal interference in other countries’ internal affairs, the wanton destruction of international norms, and selfish arrogance in the face of equal debates which we see from some countries.

当今世界,不少国家关于国家主权、领土完整等方面的合理关切未得到应有回应,对适合自身特点的发展道路、政治制度的基本追求未得到充分尊重,对发展权、话语权、治理权等平等权利的基本要求未得到有效实现。动荡变革时代,各国对政治制度、发展道路、社会文化的探索与追求空前高涨,与一些国家对别国内政的粗暴干涉、对国际准则的肆意破坏、在平等辩论面前的唯我独尊形成强烈对比。

In today’s world, the international community is facing many major real contradictions and disputes. Issues such as competition and cooperation among major countries, the world economic recovery, the advancement of global governance, and industrial and scientific and technological progress are not just important elements of the changes unseen in a century, they also determine the direction of the changes unseen in a century, and they determine each country’s future development environment. To deal with these problems, major countries must shoulder their responsibilities, cooperate, and coordinate. However, the reality is that some countries have not put the aims and principles of the UN Charter first, but instead adhere to the Cold War mentality and unilateralism. They rope in allies and partners to engage in bloc politics and confrontations between camps, deceive and divide the world with pseudo-multilateralism, and seriously erode the cornerstone of world peace.

当今世界,国际社会面临许多重大现实矛盾和纷争,大国竞争与合作,世界经济复苏,全球治理的推进,产业科技进步等等,既是百年变局重要内容,也决定百年变局走向,决定了每个国家未来发展环境。应对这些问题,大国要有责任担当,要有合作和协调。但现实是,一些国家没有把联合国宪章宗旨和原则放在前面,而是秉持冷战思维、固守单边主义,拉拢盟友伙伴搞集团政治、阵营对抗,以伪多边主义欺骗和分裂世界,严重侵蚀世界和平的基石。

In today’s world, some countries seek to achieve absolute security, base their own security on the insecurity of other countries, and disregard the reasonable security concerns of other countries. The security architecture has lost its balance and effectiveness, the reasonable security needs of the weaker party long go ignored, and long-accumulating security contradictions go unalleviated. This can very easily lead to the emergence of extreme behaviors and give rise to the expansion of contradictions and conflicts. This loss of balance and effectiveness in the security architecture is not only reflected in traditional military security and homeland security, but is also increasingly reflected in non-traditional security fields such as economics, science and technology, information, culture, and climate.

当今世界,一些国家追求实现绝对安全,将自身安全建立在别国不安全的基础上,无视他国合理安全关切。安全架构失衡、失效,弱势一方的合理安全诉求长期得不到关注,安全矛盾长期累积得不到缓解,极易导致极端行为出现,酿成矛盾冲突扩大。这种失衡、失效的安全架构,不仅体现在传统的军事安全、国土安全,也越来越多的体现在经济、科技、信息、文化、气候等非传统安全领域。

In today’s world, there are still many countries that, in the face of contradictions and disputes, cast dialogue and peace negotiations to one side. They might threaten to use force themselves or fan the flames and encourage others to use force to solve problems, and when opportunities for dialogue and negotiation arise, they single-handedly obstruct and sabotage them. They might practice double standards on security issues and resort to means such as unilateral sanctions, “long-arm jurisdiction,” and “decoupling and cutting off supplies,” leading to the expansion of disputes and deepening rifts, and driving problems down the wrong path. These measures are causing serious and continuous damage to international peace and regional stability. They are the most direct obstacle to maintaining world peace.

当今世界,仍有很多国家在面对矛盾纷争时将对话协商与和平谈判抛在一边,要么威胁自己动用武力,或者煽风拱火、怂恿他人动用武力解决问题,在出现对话协商机会时为一己之力进行阻挠破坏;要么在安全问题上搞双重标准,动辄诉诸单边制裁、“长臂管辖”、“脱钩断供”等手段,导致纷争扩大、裂痕加深,将问题推向歧途。这些举措,正在对国际和平、地区稳定造成严重且持续的破坏,是维护世界安宁的最直接阻碍因素。

In today’s world, the present era’s connotations of war, peace, security, and development are undergoing profound changes, and the themes of peace and development are encountering grave challenges. The division of labor, cooperation, and interdependence established by economic globalization are being used by some countries as a weapon to exert leverage for their own interests and to attack other countries. The vigorous development and mutual integration brought about by the deep development of cultural diversity are being used by some countries as a tool to incite confrontation and create turmoil. The efficient communication and convenience of expression formed by the accelerated development of social informatization are being used by some countries as a channel for ideological infiltration, subversion, and destruction. Fields that could have promoted international cooperation such as climate, space, deep sea, polar regions, biology, and anti-terrorism are also being politicized and militarized at an accelerated pace.

当今世界,战争、和平、安全、发展的时代内涵都在发生深刻变化,和平与发展的时代主题正在遭遇严峻挑战。经济全球化所建立起来的分工协作、相互依赖,正在被一些国家拿来作为撬动利益、打击别国的武器;文化多样化深入发展所带来的蓬勃发展、相互交融,正在被一些国家拿来作为煽动对立、制造动荡的工具;社会信息化加速发展所形成的高效沟通、便利表达,正在被一些国家拿来作为意识形态渗透、颠覆破坏的渠道。气候、太空、深海、极地、生物、反恐等原本可以促进国际合作的领域,也被加速政治化、军事化。

II. Based on the Global Security Initiative, Effectively Respond to the Security Threats of Today’s World

二、以全球安全倡议为依照,有力应对当今世界安全威胁

The Initiative has as its core essence the “Six Persistences” (六个坚持), forming a dialectical unity and complete system that is rich in meaning. It is not only a continuation and development of China’s fine traditional culture and wisdom and an integration and innovation of international security thinking with Chinese characteristics, but also the sublation and transcendence of Western security theory, a major contribution to international security theory, a strong response to the main security threats of today’s world, and an answer to the call of the times. It is a powerful theoretical weapon that we can use to maintain world peace and promote mutually beneficial cooperation.

倡议以“六个坚持”为核心要义,辩证统一、体系完整、内涵丰富,既是对中国传统优秀文化与智慧的继承和发扬,对中国特色国际安全思想的集成和创新,也是对西方安全理论的扬弃和超越,对国际安全理论的重大贡献,有力回应当今世界主要安全威胁,顺应当今时代呼唤,是我们维护世界和平、促进合作共赢的强大理论武器。

First, we must persist in the concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security and jointly maintain world peace and security. Emphasizing a common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security outlook is an important connotation of our Party’s innovative theory of diplomacy in the new era as well as the most distinctive feature of the Global Security Initiative. President Xi Jinping pointed out that security is a precondition of development, and humankind is an indivisible security community. The current impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine conflict has fully proven that no country can stand alone in the face of risks. Maintaining world peace and security is the common denominator of the interests of all humankind.

一是坚持共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,共同维护世界和平与安全。强调共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,是新时代我们党外交创新理论的重要内涵,也是全球安全倡议的最大特色。习近平主席指出,安全是发展的前提,人类是不可分割的安全共同体。当下新冠疫情及俄乌冲突的影响都充分证明,面对风险,没有任何国家可以独善其身,维护世界和平与安全是全人类的利益公约数。

Second, we must persist in respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries, non-interference in other countries’ internal affairs, and respect for the development paths and social systems independently chosen by the people of each country. The national conditions, social conditions, and people’s conditions of the various regions of the world vary widely, and there is no universal development path. Forcing one’s will on others will inevitably hurt others and one’s self. Before now, the United States has forcibly attempted to transplant flowers and trees [移花接木, impose its own politics/culture on others], carrying out “democratic transformation” in countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan. As a result, they not only suffered disastrous defeats, but also brought catastrophic disasters to the local people. Reflecting on the past tells us that all the world’s countries, big or small, rich or poor, should fully respect the autonomy of other countries to prevent such tragedies from happening again.

二是坚持尊重各国主权、领土完整,不干涉别国内政,尊重各国人民自主选择的发展道路和社会制度。世界各地国情、社情、民情千差万别,普适的发展道路并不存在,将自己的意志强加于人注定害人害己。美国此前强行移花接木,在伊拉克、阿富汗等国进行“民主改造”,结果不仅遭遇惨败,还给当地人民带来深重灾难。鉴往可以昭来,世界各国不分大小、贫富,都应对别国自主性予以充分尊重,避免此类惨剧再次发生。

Third, we must persist in observing the aims and principles of the UN Charter, abandon the Cold War mentality, oppose unilateralism, and refrain from bloc politics and confrontations between camps. The success of one country does not mean that another country must fail. The world can fully accommodate the common growth and progress of all countries. All the world’s countries should take the road of unity and cooperation, rather than allowing individual countries to “set the rhythm” in the world from a so-called “position of strength.” All countries should shoulder their due responsibilities, abide by the aims and principles of the UN Charter, adhere to openness, inclusiveness, and mutually beneficial cooperation, practice genuine multilateralism, and promote the building of a community with a shared future for humankind.

三是坚持遵守联合国宪章宗旨和原则,摒弃冷战思维,反对单边主义,不搞集团政治和阵营对抗。一国的成功不意味着另一国必然失败,这个世界完全容得下各国共同成长和进步。世界各国应走团结合作之路,而非任由个别国家从所谓“实力地位”出发在全世界“带节奏”。各国都应负起应有责任,遵守联合国宪章宗旨和原则,坚持开放包容、合作共赢,践行真正的多边主义,推动构建人类命运共同体。

Fourth, we must persist in taking seriously the reasonable security concerns of all countries and uphold the principle of the indivisibility of security. Humanity is an indivisible security community. The sovereignty, security, and development interests of any country should be protected, and the reasonable security concerns of any country should receive respect. In the recent Ukraine crisis, NATO, led by the United States, ignored the principle of the indivisibility of security and blindly pursued eastward expansion. This violated the pan-European security arrangement, and instead gave rise to the current security crisis in Europe. Military alliances and group confrontations will only jeopardize world peace. Only by taking seriously each other’s reasonable security concerns and building a balanced, effective, and sustainable security architecture can we achieve universal security and common security and find the path to a long-term solution to global security challenges.

四是坚持重视各国合理安全关切,秉持安全不可分割原则。人类是不可分割的安全共同体,任何国家的主权、安全和发展利益都应得到保护,任何国家的合理安全关切也应受到尊重。在近期的乌克兰危机中,美主导北约忽视安全不可分割原则,一味追求东扩,违背泛欧安全安排,反而酿成当下欧洲的安全危机。军事联盟和集团对抗只会危及世界和平,只有重视彼此合理安全关切,构建均衡、有效、可持续的安全架构,才能实现普遍安全、共同安全,才是应对全球安全挑战的长久之道。

Fifth, we must persist in peacefully resolving differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and negotiation. War has never been the fundamental solution to resolve differences and disputes. Instead, it will only increase hatred and give rise to a greater crisis. The three India-Pakistan wars did not resolve the territorial disputes and religious conflicts between India and Pakistan. The five Middle East wars likewise failed to resolve the differences and conflicts between Arabs and Israel. The international community should recognize that dialogue and negotiation is the most effective way to resolve differences and should support all efforts that are conducive to the peaceful resolution of crises, using dialogue, negotiation, mediation, and other such means to resolve disputes, using the establishment of rules and mechanisms to manage and control situations, using the enhancement of mutual trust to ease tensions, and using political means to resolve crises.

五是坚持通过对话协商以和平方式解决国家间的分歧和争端。战争从来不是解决分歧和争端的根本之策,反而会增加仇恨、酿成更大的危机。三次印巴战争并未解决印巴之间的领土纠纷和宗教矛盾;五次中东战争也未能解决阿以之间的分歧和矛盾。国际社会应认识到对话协商才是化解分歧最有效的途径,应支持一切有利于和平解决危机的努力,通过对话、谈判、斡旋等手段解决争端,通过建立规则机制管控局势,通过增进互信缓解紧张,通过政治手段化解危机。

Sixth, we must persist in coordinating the maintenance of security in traditional and non-traditional fields. Today’s world has not yet emerged from the haze of the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-traditional security threats such as supply chain disruptions, food crises, energy shortages, terrorism, and climate change have become increasingly prominent. Countries around the world, especially the many countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are facing graver security challenges. No country can stand on its own in the face of such threats, and no country should be left to face these challenges alone. All countries should strengthen coordination and share responsibilities, building a higher-standard global governance mechanism. As President Xi Jinping pointed out: “All countries are on board a great ship with a common destiny. To cross the stormy seas and sail to a bright tomorrow, we must act as if we are all in the same boat…”

六是坚持统筹维护传统领域和非传统领域安全。当今世界仍未走出新冠疫情的阴霾,产业链断供、粮食危机、能源紧缺、恐怖主义、气候变化等非传统安全威胁日益突出,世界各国特别是广大亚非拉国家面临更加严峻的安全挑战。威胁面前没有哪个国家能够独善其身,也不应让任何国家单独面临这些挑战。各国应加强协作、共担责任,构建更高水平的全球治理机制。正如习近平主席所指出:“世界各国乘坐在一条命运与共的大船上,要穿越惊涛骇浪、驶向光明未来,必须同舟共济……”

III. Adhering to the Overall National Security Outlook, Join Hands with All Parties to Safeguard World Peace

三、以总体国家安全观为遵循,携手各方共同守护世界安宁

The proposal of the “Global Security Initiative” as “Chinese Wisdom, a Chinese Path, and a Chinese Solution” for dealing with the new situation and new challenges in international security, conforms with the common pursuit of the world upholding multilateralism and maintaining international unity. It responds to the common aspiration of the people of all countries to overcome difficulties together and look forward to a more peaceful and safe international environment. The “Global Security Initiative” is both a concrete manifestation of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy and [his] global security outlook, and a vivid practice for guiding China’s diplomatic work based on the overall national security outlook.

作为应对国际安全新形势新挑战的“中国智慧、中国路径、中国方案”,“全球安全倡议”的提出,顺应了世界坚持多边主义、维护国际团结的共同追求,响应了各国人民共克时艰、期盼一个更加和平安宁的国际环境的共同愿望。“全球安全倡议”既是习近平外交思想和全球安全观的具体体现,也是总体国家安全观指导中国外交工作中一次生动实践。

The organic unity of the “Six Persistences” has embodied an epochal, overall, and strategic nature and its relevant content has further continued and developed the important thinking and ideas present in the overall national security outlook, such as “coordinating one’s own security and common security” and “coordinating traditional security and non-traditional security.” It has further enriched the “World Chapter” (世界篇) of the overall national security outlook, making the theoretical system of the overall national security outlook more three-dimensional and systematic. It is the product of Marxism combined with China’s contemporary diplomatic and security practices and experience, and has further enriched and developed the “National Security Chapter” (国家安全篇) of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The “Global Security Initiative” is another major foreign affairs initiative following on from the “Global Development Initiative” proposed by China last year. It is a concrete manifestation of the real-world applications of the important principle of “coordinated development and security” in foreign affairs work. It demonstrates China’s major country spirit and shouldering of responsibility for actively taking the lead in global economic and security governance, and has also become an important theoretical guide and reference guide for countries around the world to solve the current global security problems.

“六个坚持”有机统一,体现了时代性、总体性和战略性,相关内容进一步继承和发展了总体国家安全观中“统筹自身安全与共同安全”“统筹传统安全和非传统安全”等重要思想和理念,进一步丰富了总体国家安全观的“世界篇”,使总体国家安全观的理论体系更加立体、系统化,是马克思主义同中国当代外交与安全实践经验相结合的产物,进一步丰富和发展了习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的“国家安全篇”。“全球安全倡议”是继去年中国提出“全球发展倡议”之后的又一项重磅对外倡议,是“统筹发展和安全”这一重要的原则在对外工作中实际应用的具体体现,彰显了中国积极引领全球经济和安全治理的大国气魄和责任担当,也成为世界各国破解当前全球安全难题的重要理论指引和参考指南。

The Research Center for Overall National Security Outlook and the China Institute of Contemporary International Relations will use the Global Security Initiative as an opportunity, using the promotion of theoretical research on the overall national security outlook and the development of a national security first-level discipline as the two wheels upon which we move forward. [We will] continuously strengthen integrated research on the global security outlook and the overall national security outlook, give full play to our special role as a national high-end think tank in China’s international strategic research and national security research, comprehensively strengthen theoretical research and discourse construction for the global security outlook, tell the world the story of the national security path with Chinese characteristics and the security outlook with Chinese characteristics, and make our own greater contributions to the international dissemination of the overall national security outlook.

中心及现代院将以全球安全倡议的提出为契机,以推进总体国家安全观理论研究和国家安全学一级学科建设为双轮驱动,不断加强对全球安全观和总体国家安全观的一体研究,充分发挥国家高端智库在中国国际战略研究、国家安全研究中的特殊作用,全面加强全球安全观的理论研究和话语构建,向世界讲好中国特色国家安全道路、中国特色安全观的故事,为总体国家安全观的国际传播做出自己更大的贡献。

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陈向阳 (Chen Xiangyang)董春岭 (Dong Chunling)韩立群 (Han Liqun) (2022). "Deep Comprehension of the Global Security Initiative: Coordinating Our Own Security and Common Security [深刻领悟全球安全倡议 统筹自身和共同安全]". Interpret: China, Original work published May 9, 2022, https://interpret.csis.org/translations/deep-comprehension-of-the-global-security-initiative-coordinating-our-own-security-and-common-security/

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